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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-29
 

Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children


1 PGT, Dr. R. A. Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata, India
2 Head of Department, Pedodentia with Preventive Dentistry, Dr. R. A. Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata, India

Correspondence Address:
S Sarkar
7-P.C. Ghosh Road, Calcutta - 700 048, West Begal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.22832

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  Abstract 

The present study was carried out to find out the amount of cariogenic and cariostatic trace elements in mixed saliva. It was observed that Cu, Pb, Na showed significant variation in case of one surface as compared to caries free group. Between the non-caries and multiple caries group Cu, Pb, K showed no significant variation Zn showed highly significant variation.


Keywords: Caries active, Caries free, Mixed, Saliva, Trace elements


How to cite this article:
Zahir S, Sarkar S. Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2006;24:27-9

How to cite this URL:
Zahir S, Sarkar S. Study of trace elements in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2006 [cited 2020 Apr 4];24:27-9. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2006/24/1/27/22832


Saliva is composed of anions, cations, nonelectrolytes, aminoacids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.[1] Saliva is mainly composed of water (99.5%), organic (0.3%), inorganic and trace elements (0.2%). Trace elements are present in biological substances or fluids in very minute amounts, i.e., in microgram per gram or less in concentration. Presence of various types of trace elements in saliva.[2],[3],[4],[5]

The present study focuses on the estimation of Na, K, Cu, Pb, and Zn ion in mixed saliva of children. Certain investigators have reported that some trace elements to be cariogenic and others as cariostatic. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]


  Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted to find out the amount of cariogenic and cariostatic trace elements present in mixed saliva of growing children. Thirty children were selected from an orphanage (S.O.S. Village, Salt Lake). All children had same type of food, and environment from birth.

Material and instruments used for the study were as follows:

1. Glass test tube with stopper

2. Pipette

3. Test tube rack

4. Thermoflask with ice

5. Deionized water

6. Filter paper

7. Nitric acid

8. Atomic absorption spectrometer (Model - Varion AA575 ABQ)

The subjects were allowed to sit on a chair in a relaxed condition. Unstimulated mixed saliva was collected in marked test tubes. The collected saliva was filtered with filter paper. About 4.5 ml of filtered saliva was collected in a test tube. About 0.5 ml of HNO 3 was measured with the help of the pipette and added to the saliva. About 5 ml of Deionized redistilled water was added to the collected sample.

A total of 10 ml of saliva sample collected in a test tube, was put in a thermoflask and sent to the Bose Institute, Kolkata, for analysis.

Accurate percentage of inorganic and trace elements present in the saliva was measured by highly versatile double beam Atomic absorption Spectrometer (Model - Varion AA575 ABQ)

Known concentration of the element made a concentration curve in an experimental solution, whereas the unknown concentration of element was read from a calibration curve.


  Results Top


The present study comprised of 30 children from S.O.S. Village, Salt Lake. Estimation of Na, K, Cu, Pb, and Zn ion present in mixed saliva of caries free and caries active children was studied. Studied samples were divided into three groups as follows i.e.

Group A - Caries free

Group B - One surface caries

Group C - Multiple surface caries

The data was subjected to statistical analysis and following observations were made [Table - 1]. It was observed that the co-efficient of variation in percentage indicate a high degree of variability present in the sample in cases without caries (Group A) in relation to the presence of Cu. For Na on the other hand, the variation within the sample was lowest. For Pb, Zn, and K, a moderate degree of variation was present.

[Table - 2] shows variation present in Cu, Pb and Zn when compared with noncaries group. Zn, K indicates lower degree of variation.

[Table - 3] shows high degree of variability present in Cu ion in saliva in multiple caries case.

From [Table - 4] it was observed that an average amount of Cu, Pb and Na have significant variation ( P = 0.001) in case of one surface caries as compared to caries free group. On the other hand, K has not significantly changed ( F = 0.05) and Zn value had significantly reduced ( P = 0.001).

When the effect is compared between non-caries with multiple caries group, then, Cu, Pb, K showed non-significant variation ( P 0.05), Zn showed highly significant variation ( P 0.005) and Na value also showed significant variation ( P 0.001).

The amount of trace element i.e. Cu (0.07 to 0.30) Pb (0.18 to 0.34). Zn value is significantly decreased (12.33 to 0.17), Na (10 to 8.33) and K value is more or less same.


  Discussion Top


Human saliva is an unique secretion of major and minor salivary glands to maintain normal physiologic functions of oro-biological struc­tures.

Trace elements present in biological substances and fluid in very minute amount i.e. microgram per gram or less in concentration.[12]

Very few studies were undertaken about inorganic and trace element present in human saliva. Present study is attempted to make an assay of inorganic, trace element present in mixed saliva in growing children of Bengal.

Concentration of trace elements in saliva have been estimated earlier.[13],[14],[15],[16] In present study high concentration of Na and K (10.00 and 11.15% respectively) found in unstimulated mixed saliva. Afonsky (1061)[17] noted concentration of Na & K in unstimulated saliva.

Concentration of salivary Cu & Pb assayed in present study was 0.19 and 0.2 7 respectively. High level of Cu ion and Pb ion in mixed saliva like present study, were observed by authro earlier. [3],[4],[5],[18],[19]

Present study showed Zn concentration in saliva was 0.11 - 12.33 ppm. Percentage of salivary Zn was detected to be higher by various investigators. Present observation is in accordance to previous investigators.[20],[21],[22]

Dental caries is a multifactorical disease. Classic Venn diagram schematically sums up the factors i. e. diet, host (Saliva and tooth) bacte­ria and time are responsible for development of dental caries.

The first line of defence against dental caries is the saliva.[23] Saliva is saturated with Ca and P and for that reason solubility is constant and prevent dissolution of teeth.[24]

Various investigators are of the opinion that salivary inorganic substance and trace elements influence the susceptibility of tooth to dental caries. But up to date very few studies were conducted regarding presence of inorganic and trace elements of saliva and their relation to dental caries.

Various scientists have suggested Pb and K to be cariogenic. Cu is mild cariostatic. Na has no relation with dental caries. Value of Na & Zn changed from caries free to multiple caries cases. [20],[21],[22] Concentration of elements in enamel varies among various ethnic groups as has been reported by cuttress.[25]

More studies however are required on this subject.

 
  References Top

1.Mendel ID. Relation of saliva and plaque to caries. J Dent Res 1974;53:246-63.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Dreizen S, Spieo HA. The copper and cobalt levels of human saliva and dental caries activity. J Dent Re 1952;31:137.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Dreizen S, Levy BM. Comparative concentrations of se­lected tracemetals in human and marmoset saliva. Arch Biol 1970;15:179-88.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Cutress TW. Comparison of flowrate and PH of mixed and parotid saliva from trisomic 21 and other mentally retarded subjects. Arch Oral Biol 1972;17:1081-94.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  
5.Schamschula. W. H. O. study of dental caries etiology in Papua New Guinea: Geneva WHO publication; 1978.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Stephan RJ. In vitro studies of the effect of some chemical substances on the growth of the oral microorganism and their ability to dissolve tooth salts. J Dent Res 1949;28:652.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Forbes JC, Smith JD. Studies on the effect of metal salts on acid production in saliva. J Dent Res 1952;31:129.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  
8.Dunning JM. The influence of latitude and distance from the seacost on dental disease. J Dent Res 1953;32:811-29.  Back to cited text no. 8  [PUBMED]  
9.Kruger BJ. The effect of trace elements on experimental dental caries in the albino rat. Aus Dent J 1958;3:374.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Navia JM. Effect of minerals on dental caries in Gould Rf (editor). Dietary chemical vs dental caries. Advances in chemistry se­ries. American Chemical Society Publications: 1970.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Zipkin I, Bullock FA, Mantel N. The relation of salivary Na, K, solids and ash concentration to dental caries experience in children 5 - 6 & 12 - 14 yrs of age. J Dent Res 1957;36:525-31.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  
12.Eugene P, Lazzari. Dental biochemistry, 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia; 1976. p. 281-2.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Dawes C. Effect of diet on salivary secretion and compo­sition. J Dent Res 1970;49:1263-70.  Back to cited text no. 13  [PUBMED]  
14.Schwartz A, Shaw JH. Studies on the effect of selective desalination on the dental caries incidence of albinorats. J Dent Res 1955;14:239-47.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Gron L. 1968, Quoted from page No.:110, "Trace elements and dental disease" MET curzon, TW cutress, John Wright PSH Inc: Boston, Bristol, London; 1983.  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Dreizen, Levy BM. Comparative concentrtions of selected trace n petals in human and marmoset saliva. Arch Oral Biol 1970;15:179-88.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Afonsky I. Survey of the literature, A review. Bermingham: University of Alabama Press; 1961.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Brudevold F, Aseanden R, Srinivasan BN, Bakhos Y. Leading enamel and saliva, dental caries and the use of enamel biopsies for measuring post exposure to pb. J Dent Res 1977;56:1165-71.  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Curzon, Bibby. The effect of heavy metal on dental caries and tooth eruption. J Dent Child 1970;37:463-5.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Khrosh TM. The use of zinc for prevention of dental caries. Stomatologica Moss 1966;45:38-41.  Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Helle, A, Haavikk DK. The concentration of Nine macro and micro minerals in drinking water examined in relation to caries prevalence. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1977;73:87-8.  Back to cited text no. 21    
22.Tewari A, Chawla. Interrelationship of zinc and copper in drinking water with dental caries experience in real life situations. JISPPD 1985;4:4-14.  Back to cited text no. 22    
23.Schwartz A, Shaw JH. Studies on the effect of selective desalivation on the dental caries incidence of albino rats. J Dent Res 1955;14:239-47.  Back to cited text no. 23    
24.Aldons JA. Induced zerostomia and its relation to dental caries. J Dent Child 1964;31:160-2.  Back to cited text no. 24    
25.Cutress TW. A preliminary study of the microelement com­position of the outer layer of dental enamel. Caries Res 1979;13:73-9.  Back to cited text no. 25  [PUBMED]  


    Tables

[Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4]


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