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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 119-121
 

Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district


1 Clinical Research Center, Darshan Dental College, Loyara, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Clinical Research Center, Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, USA
3 Patron, Clinical Research Center, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
V Dhar
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Loyara, Udaipur - 313 011, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.36560

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   Abstract 

Dental caries is among the most common dental problems affecting humans. This condition is a major health problem with high prevalence, globally involving the people of all regions and society. This study was conducted on 1587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. Dental caries was found in 46.75% children, and 76.87% children required some kind of dental treatment.


Keywords: Caries, prevalence, treatment needs


How to cite this article:
Dhar V, Jain A, Van Dyke T E, Kohli A. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25:119-21

How to cite this URL:
Dhar V, Jain A, Van Dyke T E, Kohli A. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2007 [cited 2019 Nov 15];25:119-21. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2007/25/3/119/36560



   Introduction Top


Dental caries is among the most common dental diseases with high prevalence in humans. It is crucial to control the disease process by assessing and rendering the treatment required along with spreading awareness regarding prevention. Several prevalence studies have been conducted and reported on different occasions on the dental caries and the treatment needs in developing countries such as India. However, not much data is available on the prevalence of dental caries and the treatment needs in children of Rajasthan, particularly in Udaipur district.

The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of dental caries and the treatment needs in school-going children of Udaipur district, Rajasthan.


   Materials and Methods Top


This study was carried out in the Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry wing, Clinical Research Center, Udaipur, Rajasthan.

The study was conducted on 1587 school-going children over a time span of 1 year (January-December 2005) involving a total of 23 schools. The Department of Pediatric Dentistry acquired official permissions from the State government, District Education office and Anganwadi for conducting school health programs in all the government schools in the rural areas of Udaipur district. This study was cleared by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur.

After obtaining consent from the parents and teachers, 20-25 children were brought from different schools to the hospital regularly, examined and given free dental treatment. In this manner, all the students in the age group of 5-14 years were examined from all the schools. The schools were located in rural areas and selected randomly.

The children were examined by a single examiner who was trained to record the WHO oral health assessment form [1] to avoid interexaminer variations. WHO indices were used for recording caries and treatment needs. All the data was compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test for obtaining the results.


   Results Top


A total of 1587 children were examined, out of which 827 were boys and 760 were girls. Among them, 188, 587 and 812 children belonged to the age groups of 5-7, 8-10 and 11-14 years, respectively [Table - 1].

An overall caries prevalence of 46.75% (DMFT 2.07) was recorded. Caries prevalence in the age group 5-7, 8-10 and 11-14 years were 18.62% (DMFT 1.96), 49.23% (DMFT 2.43) and 51.48% (DMFT 1.84), respectively. The difference between the age groups of 5-7 and 8-10 years was highly significant, whereas the difference between the groups of 8-10 and 11-14 years was not significant. The difference between the groups of 5-7 and 11-14 years was also highly significant. The caries prevalence of boys was 48.13% (DMFT 2.19) and that of girls was 45.26% (DMFT 1.94), and the difference was found to be insignificant [Table - 2],[Table - 3].

A total of 76.87% children required treatment, out of which 79.32% were boys and 74.21% were girls, and the difference was significant. In the age groups of 5-7, 8-10 and 11-14 years, the children who required treatment were 86.17%, 84.32% and 69.33% respectively. The difference between age groups I and II was not significant, but those between age groups II and III and I and III were highly significant [Table - 4].

Among the different types of treatment required, there was no statistical difference between boys and girls; however, the difference between the age groups was significantly high. More cases were observed with requirement of one surface fillings followed by sealant care, other care, two or more surface fillings, extractions, crowns and pulp care in that order [Table - 5].


   Discussion Top


The present study was targeted at school-going children because of the ease of accessibility. [2] The overall caries was found to be 46.75% in the present study. Higher caries prevalence was found with the increase in age, similar findings were obtained in studies conducted by Shourie [3] Retnakumari [4] and Mahesh kumar et al . [5] Higher DMFT was found in the age group of 8-10 years; this could be explained on the basis of increased exposure of the teeth to poor oral hygiene conditions in comparison to that of the age group of 5-7, years but DMFT was lesser in the age group of 11-14 years due to presence of newly erupted permanent teeth. Although not statistically significant, as the prevalence rate was higher among children of 11-14 years age, it implied that more children in this group had caries; however, a greater number of teeth were carious, missing or filled for each child in the age group of 8-10 years. In the present study, no significant difference was recorded in caries prevalence among boys and girls as recorded by Gauba et al. [6] In 2.61% children, teeth were missing due to caries, it was also observed that only 2.52% children had dental fillings and boys had a slightly higher number of fillings than girls; a finding similar to this study was found in the study conducted by Jose et al . [7]

Among the different age groups, higher treatment needs was found among the children in the age group of 5-7 years; this was mainly because of the higher need of sealants due to newly erupted permanent molars. This was followed by the age group of 8-10 years, which also had maximum DMFT. Boys had significantly higher treatment needs in comparison to girls. There was high need for other care, which mainly included space management and composite veneers as the treatment for the anterior teeth affected by fluorosis. This study gives an overview of the existing caries and the treatment needs in school children of Udaipur and helps in implementing programs to achieve optimal health for children.

 
   References Top

1.World Health Organization oral Health Survey, Basic Methods, 4 th ed. WHO: Geneva; 1999  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Holm AK. Caries in preschool child: International trends. J Dent 1990;18:291-5  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Shourie KL. A dental survey in Ajmer merwara. Indian J Med Res 1947;35:215-25  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Retnakumari N. Prevalence of dental caries and risk assessment among primary school children of 6-12 years in Varkala municipal area of Kerela. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 1999;17:4:135-42  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Mahesh Kumar P, Joseph T, Varma RB, Jayanth M. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city: An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 2005;23:17-22  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Gauba K, Tewari A, Chawla HS. Frequency distribution of children according to dental caries status in rural areas of northern India (Punjab). J Indian Dent Assoc 1986;58:505-12  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Jose A, Joseph MR. Prevalence of dental health problems among school going children in rural Kerala. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 2003;24:147-51  Back to cited text no. 7    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3], [Table - 4], [Table - 5]


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    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results
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