|Year : 2008 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 102-106
Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life
AS Moimaz Suzely, Livia G Zina, Nemre A Saliba, Orlando Saliba
Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil
Livia G Zina
Department of Pediatric and Social Dentistry, Araçatuba School of Dentistry - São Paulo State University, Rua José Bonifácio 1193 - Araçatuba, SP 16015-050
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.
Keywords: Breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, finger sucking, habits, malocclusion, pacifiers, risk factors
|How to cite this article:|
Moimaz Suzely A S, Zina LG, Saliba NA, Saliba O. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2008;26:102-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Moimaz Suzely A S, Zina LG, Saliba NA, Saliba O. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2008 [cited 2019 Nov 20];26:102-6. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2008/26/3/102/43188
Sucking is the first coordinated muscular activity of the infant. A natural sucking instinct leads some babies to suck their thumbs during the first few months of life or even before birth. During this period, besides satisfying the infants' need for sucking, breast-feeding contributes to the correct development of dentofacial structures. Children who do not have access to unrestricted breast-feeding or are bottle-fed may satisfy their instinctive sucking urge with prolonged use of pacifiers or by sucking their thumbs, which may result to the development dental problems. 
The sucking habits of infants are described in the literature as being of two types: nutritive and non-nutritive sucking.  Thumb sucking, finger sucking, and sucking on a pacifier (dummy, comforter) are considered as non-nutritive sucking. Pacifiers or other sucking devices are given to infants to comfort and calm them.  Great variations in non-nutritive sucking habits can be observed in different cultures. ,,,
Dental Surgeons claim that thumb sucking and pacifier use are associated with dental malocclusion. ,, An increased prevalence of both oral candida and salivary lactobacilli has been observed in infants using a pacifier or being bottle-fed.  Also, pacifier use is found to be associated with an increased risk of recurrent acute otitis media.  It has been shown that the use of a pacifier in the early postpartum period, when the infant is learning to suck at the breast, may interfere with proper sucking and can contribute to so-called nipple confusion.  Several studies have shown an association between shorter breast-feeding duration and pacifier use. ,,,, These findings led the World Health Organization / United Nations Children Fund to recommend avoidance of the use of pacifiers; the recommendation being incorporated as step 9 of the 'Ten Steps to Successful Breast-feeding,' as part of the Baby Friendly Hospitals Initiative. 
Therefore, it seems that the longer the children are breast-fed, the less chance they have of using the pacifier or of sucking on their thumbs and, consequently, the lower the probability of developing malocclusion in childhood. 
The aim of the present study was to assess the breast-feeding pattern (i.e., breast-feeding frequency and median duration) and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in Brazilian infants.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Araηatuba city, Brazil. Araηatuba is a city of 179,000 people in Sγo Paulo State in the northeast of Brazil.
A sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was selected and interviewed in the biggest health center of Araηatuba, which is part of the public health service network in the city, during the National Vaccination Campaign Day in June 2005. The sample size was calculated on the basis of the breast-feeding prevalence rate reported in previous national studies  and was weighted to be representative of the population attending the health center. The mothers were randomly selected while they were standing in line to have their child vaccinated. Women who did not want to participate in the study and those whose child was older than 12 months were excluded.
The data was collected by means of a structured interview. The instrument consisted of a pretested form with questions related to the mothers' and offsprings' identification, maternal sociodemographic characteristics, history of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, history of sucking habits, and history of maternal dental treatment. Breast-feeding duration refers to the total duration of any breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding refers to feeding of the child with liquid or semisolid food from a bottle with a nipple/teat. Infants were considered pacifier users/ thumb suckers if they sucked pacifiers/ thumbs every day.
We used the definition and categories of breast-feeding recommended by WHO: exclusive breast-feeding (when the child has received only breast milk), predominant breast-feeding (when breast milk was the predominant source of nourishment), and complementary breast-feeding (when breast milk was given in addition to solid or semisolid food); breast-feeding refers to feeding the infant with breast milk and weaning is the term used when the infant is fed liquid or food other than breast milk. 
A pilot study was carried out in the Expectant mother Dental Care Clinic of Araηatuba School of Dentistry (UNESP) in order to validate the instrument and to calibrate the researchers.
Data analysis was carried out using the statistical software Epi Info, version 3.2 (CDC, USA, 2004). Baseline variables were described through means and proportions (%). The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding (the age in months at which 50% of children are no longer breast-fed) were calculated. The hypothesis tested was that breast-feeding practices and sociodemographic factors are associated with the occurrence of sucking habits. The exposure factors were the breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables and the outcome was the presence or absence of sucking habits.
The association between maternal variables (age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income); breast-feeding prevalence [breast-feeding (exclusive breast-feeding + predominant + complementary breast-feeding); or weaning (artificial breast-feeding)] and infants' sucking habits (presence or absence of pacifier use and thumb sucking) was examined. The statistical analysis included two-sample tests, the Chi-square test and Fisher exact test. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was assumed to indicate statistical significance in all the tests.
| Results|| |
All the expectant mothers who were invited to participate in this study agreed to it. Therefore, 100 mothers were included in this study and were interviewed after they had signed informed consent forms.
The majority of the mothers in this study were from low-income families, were urban dwellers, and were mostly young adults, the mean age being 26 years. More than half of them (54%) were primiparous . The mean age of the infants was 5.8 months and the sample had almost equal numbers of girls (48%) and boys (52%). Only 12 children were premature, i.e., had been born before completion of 37 weeks of gestation.
According to the feeding practices, the infants could be separated into the following groups: exclusive breast-feeding (20%), predominant breast-feeding (21%), complementary breast-feeding (34%), and weaning (25%).
Through survival analysis we calculated the proportion of breast-fed infants at different ages. [Figure 1] shows the breast-feeding duration among infants in their first year of life. As the infants grew older, there was a rapid decrease in the numbers being exclusively breast-fed, and by 6 months of age only 22.2% were being exclusively breast-fed. However, among infants receiving any form of breast-feeding (i.e., exclusive breast-feeding + predominant + complementary breast-feeding), there was a less steeper decline, with a steady proportion of 65% of children being breast-fed from 7 to 12 months. The median duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 3.65 months.
Fifty-five percent of all mothers reported that their child had at least one type of sucking habit. Among these infants, 79.2% used a pacifier, 15.1% sucked their thumbs, and 5.7% had both habits. In the group of breast-fed children (n = 75) 44% reported some sucking habit. When only the artificial breast-feeding group was considered, 55% had sucking habits as compared with 88% in the weaning group.
Seventy-four percent of infants were bottle-fed, which corresponded to 25% being artificial breast-fed (not human milk) and 49% were predominantly and complementarily breast-fed (human milk and other liquids). In many cases, the bottle was used to feed children with infant formula, tea, water, and juice.
Breast-feeding was found to prevent the occurrence of sucking habits (OR = 0.107). When all forms of breast-feeding were considered together (i.e., exclusive + predominant + complementary) there was a statistically significant negative association with the presence of sucking habits ( P = 0.0001). When the type of sucking habits were considered separately, breast-feeding was found to be negatively associated with the use of pacifiers ( p < 0.0001), but there was no statistically significant association with thumb sucking ( p = 1.000); however, breast-feeding does seem to prevent the occurrence of thumb sucking (OR = 0.876) [Table 1].
Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning ( p = 0.0003). Among the infants who were bottle-fed, the odds that the child was being weaned was 26 times that of those who were not bottle-fed (OR = 26.305; 95% CI: 1.534 to 451.00).
Among the maternal sociodemographic variables evaluated in this study, only marital status showed a statistically significant association with the presence of at least one of the sucking habits (pacifier use and/or thumb sucking) ( p = 0.04). The distribution of these variables according to the prevalence of sucking habits is presented in [Table 2].
Only 29% of mothers received dental treatment when they were pregnant. There was no association between the mother's dental care during the pregnancy and the prevalence of sucking habits among the offspring in their first year of life ( p = 0.8).
| Discussion|| |
The main finding of this study reveals that the breast-feeding protects against the occurrence of non-nutritive sucking habits during early childhood. Marital status was the only sociodemographic variable associated with sucking habits; however, when the two types of sucking habits (i.e., pacifier use or thumb sucking) were considered separately, no association was observed. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding was low, although a high proportion of children received breast milk in addition to other liquids or foods during their first year of life. More than half of the children used pacifiers and/or sucked their thumb as a daily habit.
As a secondary outcome, we also observed that dental care during pregnancy had no influence on the prevalence of sucking habits in children. It seems that no health education (with regard to oral health) was imparted as part of dental treatment during pregnancy. It must be realized that mothers play an important role in families; they determine many of the behaviors their children will develop in the future. Education on the prevention of oral diseases imparted to pregnant women is fundamental to the introduction of good oral habits in their children. It has been reported that the children of mothers who have received such health education during their pregnancy have better oral health status than the children of mothers not submitted to educational programs. , During pregnancy, women are more inclined to receive and accept new information and assume responsibilities. However, especially in underprivileged communities, the majority of pregnant women get no instruction during pregnancy regarding oral health. 
Breast-feeding provides multiple nutritional, immunological, and psychological benefits to the infant in its first year of life. Systematic reviews have shown strong evidence in favor of this practice ,, In addition, it seems that the act of breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of an infant's oral cavity: there is improved shaping of the hard palate, resulting in proper alignment of teeth and fewer problems with malocclusions. ,,,
WHO recommends that infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life, with some breast-feeding continuing for up to 2 years of age or beyond. , When provided along with appropriate and adequate complementary food, breast milk continues to be an important source of nutrition and fluids and provides immunological benefits even after 6 months of age. However, the rates of exclusive breast-feeding in our study were far from satisfactory. Supplemental feeding before 6 months has a detrimental effect on breast-feeding duration. , The early introduction of liquids other than human milk, in the form of infant formula, tea, and juice, is common practice in several countries and can contribute to early weaning. ,,,
The strengths of this analysis included the study question and the quality of the data that was collected. A weakness was the study design Clinical evidence is rated on a scale ranging from level 1 (high) to level 5 (low). Based on ability to control for bias and to demonstrate cause and effect, cross-sectional studies are assumed to provide level 4 evidence.  They can not be used for assessing causality. Another problem with this design is the inability to control for confounders. Although we tried to minimize the bias in our study, it could not be totally eliminated. A randomized controlled trial might have been better, but withholding breast-feeding in one group of infants would have been unethical. The best design, therefore, would have been a cohort study. A continuation of our study is being developed according to this model.
Non-nutritive sucking habits may predispose to the occurrence of malocclusion during childhood; it is a risk factor for the development of open bite and posterior crossbite in deciduous dentition. , Occlusal dysfunctions can have severe implications on children's general health and self-esteem and have been classified as a dental public health problem. , If the act of breast-feeding can prevent the development of sucking habits in children in their first year of life, that is yet one more reason to promote breast-feeding practices. International organizations such as WHO and UNICEF, governments, and the media have been making great efforts to increase the rates of breast-feeding in all parts of the world.
Analysis of the available data suggests that the occurrence of non-nutritive sucking habits can be avoided through simple measures like correct breast-feeding practices. Although this is not a new issue, consistent evidence is still lacking on the effect of breast-feeding on sucking habits and, consequently, malocclusion.  This study contributes to scientific literature by reporting new data on this field.
| References|| |
|1.||Turgeon-O'Brien H, Lachapelle D, Gagnon PF, Larocque I, Maheu-Robert LF. Nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits: A review. ASDC J Dent Child 1996;63:321-7. |
|2.||Klackenberg G. A prospective longitudinal study of children: Data on psychic health and development up to 8 years of age. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1971;224:1-239. |
|3.||Clements MS, Mitchell EA, Wright SP, Esmail A, Jones DR, Ford RP. Influences on breast-feeding in southeast England. Acta Paediatr 1997;86:51-6. |
|4.||Peres KG, De Oliveira Latorre Mdo R, Sheiham A, Peres MA, Victora CG, Barros FC. Social and biological early life influences on the prevalence of open bite in Brazilian 6-year-olds. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007;17:41-9. |
|5.||Kharbanda OP, Sidhu SS, Sundaram K, Shukla DK. Oral habits in school going children of Delhi: A prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2003;21:120-4. [PUBMED] |
|6.||Warren JJ, Bishara SE. Duration of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking behaviors and their effects on the dental arches in the primary dentition. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2002;121:347-56. |
|7.||Ogaard B, Larsson E, Lindsten R. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle-feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1994;106:161-6. |
|8.||Cozza P, Baccetti T, Franchi L, Mucedero M, Polimeni A. Sucking habits and facial hyperdivergency as risk factors for anterior open bite in the mixed dentition. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005;128:517-9. |
|9.||Larsson E. Sucking, chewing, and feeding habits and the development of crossbite: A longitudinal study of girls from birth to 3 years of age. Angle Orthod 2001;71:116-9. |
|10.||Shetty SR, Munshi AK. Oral habits in children: A prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1998;16:61-6. [PUBMED] |
|11.||Ollila P, Niemelδ M, Uhari M, Larmas M. Prolonged pacifier-sucking and use of a nursing bottle at night: Possible risk factors for dental caries in children. Acta Odontol Scand 1998;56:233-7. |
|12.||Niemelδ M, Pihakari O, Pokka T, Uhari M. Pacifier as a risk factor for acute otitis media: A randomized, controlled trial of parental counseling. Pediatrics 2000;106:483-8. |
|13.||Neifert M, Lawrence R, Seacat J. Nipple confusion: Toward a formal definition. J Pediatr 1995;126:S125-9. |
|14.||Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, Eberly S, deBlieck EA, Oakes D, et al. Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on breast-feeding. Pediatrics 2003;111:511-8. |
|15.||Kramer MS, Barr RG, Dagenais S, Yang H, Jones P, Ciofani L, et al. Pacifier use, early weaning, and cry/fuss behavior: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286:322-6. |
|16.||Aarts C, Hornell A, Kylberg E, Hofvander Y, Gebre-Medhin M. Breast-feeding patterns in relation to thumb sucking and pacifier use. Pediatrics 1999;104:e50. |
|17.||Riva E, Banderali G, Agostoni C, Silano M, Radaelli G, Giovannini M. Factors associated with initiation and duration of breast-feeding in Italy. Acta Paediatr 1999;88:411-5. |
|18.||Victora CG, Behague DP, Barros FC, Olinto MT, Weiderpass E. Pacifier use and short breast-feeding duration: Cause, consequence, or coincidence? Pediatrics 1997;99:445-53. |
|19.||World Health Organization. Evidence for the ten steps to successful breast-feeding. Division of child health and development. Geneva: WHO; 1998. |
|20.||Charchut SW, Allred EN, Needleman HL. The effects of infant feeding patterns on the occlusion of the primary dentition. J Dent Child (Chic) 2003;70:197-203. |
|21.||Venancio SI, Escuder MM, Kitoko P, Rea MF, Monteiro CA. Frequency and determinants of breast-feeding in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 2002;36:313-8. |
|22.||World Health Organization. Indicators for assessing breast-feeding practices. Geneva: WHO; 1991. |
|23.||Rothwell B, Gregory CE, Sheller B. The pregnant patient: Considerations in dental care. Spec Care Dentist 1987;7:124-9. |
|24.||Gomez SS, Weber AA. Effectiveness of a caries preventive program in pregnant women and new mothers on their offspring. Int J Paediatr Dent 2001;11:117-22. |
|25.||Günay H, Dmonch-Bockhorn K, Günay Y, Geurtsen W. Effect on caries experience of a long term preventive program for mothers and children starting during pregnancy. Clin Oral Investing 1998;2:137-42. |
|26.||Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Smith GD, Cook DG. Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: A quantitative review of published evidence. Pediatrics 2005;115:1367-77. |
|27.||Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;1:CD003517. |
|28.||Butte NF, Lopez-Alarcon MG, Garza C. Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breast-feeding for the term infant during the first six months of life. Department of nutrition for health and development. Department of child and adolescent health and development. Geneva: WHO; 2002. |
|29.||Lescano de Ferrer A, Varela de Villalba TB. Effect of the suction-swallowing action on orofacial development and growth. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2006;63:33-7. |
|30.||Palmer B. The influence of breast-feeding on the development of the oral cavity: A commentary. J Hum Lact 1998;14:93-8. |
|31.||Fabac E, Legouvic M, Zupan M. The linkage between breast-feeding and the growth of the orofacial area. Fortschr Kieferorthop 1992;53:187-91. |
|32.||Picard PJ. Bottle-feeding as preventive orthodontics. J Calif State Dent Assoc 1959;35:90-5. |
|33.||Araújo de Franηa GV, Brunken GS, da Silva SM, Escuder MM, Venancio SI. Breast-feeding determinants on the first year of life of children in a city of Midwestern Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 2007;41:711-8. |
|34.||Pontin D, Emmett P, Steer C, Emond A; ALSPAC Study Team. Patterns of breast-feeding in a UK longitudinal cohort study. Matern Child Nutr 2007;3:2-9. |
|35.||Mennella JA, Turnbull B, Ziegler PJ, Martinez H. Infant feeding practices and early flavor experiences in Mexican infants: An intra-cultural study. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:908-15. |
|36.||Medhi GK, Mahanta J. Breast-feeding, weaning practices and nutritional status of infants of tea garden workers of Assam. Indian Pediatr 2004;41:1277-9. |
|37.||Strauss SE, Richardson WS, Glasziou P, Haynes RB. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. 3 rd ed. New York: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone; 2005. |
|38.||Viggiano D, Fasano D, Monaco G, Strohmenger L. Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding, and non-nutritive sucking: Effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:1121-3. |
|39.||O'Brien C, Benson PE, Marshman Z. Evaluation of a quality of life measure for children with malocclusion. J Orthod 2007;34:185-93. |
|40.||Petersen PO. The World Oral Health Report 2003. Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21 st century - the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Oral Health Programme. Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Geneva: WHO; 2003. |
|41.||Callaghan A, Kendall G, Lock C, Mahony A, Payne J, Verrier L. Association between pacifier use and breast-feeding, sudden infant death syndrome, infection and dental malocclusion. Int J Evidence Based Healthcare 2005;3:147-67. |
[Table 1], [Table 2]
|This article has been cited by|
||Breastfeeding and Parafunctional Oral Habits in Children With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
| ||Osman Sabuncuoglu,Cahid Orengul,Alperen Bikmazer,Seheryeli Yilmaz Kaynar |
| ||Breastfeeding Medicine. 2014; 9(5): 244 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Electromyographic analysis of masseter muscle in newborns during suction in breast, bottle or cup feeding
| ||Ellia CL França,Cejana B Sousa,Lucas C Aragão,Luciane R Costa |
| ||BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014; 14(1): 154 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The effect of thumb sucking on splanchocraniums development in childhood [CmÃºlanie prstov a jeho vplyv na vÃ½voj tvÃ¡re a dutiny Ãºstnej v detskom veku]
| ||LysÃ½, J. and LysÃ¡, Z. and SuchancovÃ¡, B. and Thurzo, A. and ÄerveÅovÃ¡, O. |
| ||Cesko-Slovenska Pediatrie. 2012; 67(1): 43-47 |
||A longitudinal study of the association between breast-feeding and harmful oral habits
| ||Moimaz, S.A.S. and Saliba, O. and Lolli, L.F. and Garbin, C.A.S. and Garbin, A.J.Ã. and Saliba, N.A. |
| ||Pediatric Dentistry. 2012; 34(2): 117-121 |
||Maternal breastfeeding, parafunctional oral habits and malocclusion in adolescents: A multivariate analysis
| ||Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira Assis |
| ||International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2012; |
|[VIEW] | [DOI]|
||Risk Factors for Discontinuing Breastfeeding in Southern Brazil: A Survival Analysis
| ||Carlos Alberto Feldens, Márcia Regina Vitolo, Fernanda Rauber, Luciane Nascimento Cruz, Juliana Balbinot Hilgert |
| ||Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2011; |
|[VIEW] | [DOI]|
||Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition
| ||Romero, C.C. and Scavone Jr., H. and Garib, D.G. and Cotrim-Ferreira, F.A. and Ferreira, I.R. |
| ||Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2011; 19(2): 161-168 |
||HÃ¡bitos de sucÃ§Ã£o nÃ£o nutritivos, respiraÃ§Ã£o bucal, deglutiÃ§Ã£o atÃpica - Impactos na oclusÃ£o dentÃ¡ria
| ||Passos, M.M. and Frias-Bulhosa, J. |
| ||Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentaria e Cirurgia Maxilofacial. 2010; 51(2): 121-127 |
||Orientation guide for oral health during the first years of life [GuÃa de orientaciÃ³n para la salud bucal en los primeros aÃ±os de vida]
| ||Palma, C. and Cahuana, A. and GÃ³mez, L. |
| ||Acta Pediatrica Espanola. 2010; 68(7): 351-357 |
||Hábitos de Sucção Não Nutritivos, Respiração Bucal, Deglutição Atípica - Impactos na Oclusão Dentária
| ||Maria Moniz Passos,José Frias-Bulhosa |
| ||Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentária e Cirurgia Maxilofacial. 2010; 51(2): 121 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence
| ||Telles, F.B.A. and Ferreira, R.I. and MagalhÃ£es, L.N.C. and Scavone-Junior, H. |
| ||Brazilian Oral Research. 2009; 23(4): 432-438 |