|Year : 2008 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 32-33
Bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular incisors: A case report
A Saxena, RK Pandey, M Kamboj
Department of Pedodontics with Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India
1/30, Sector-I, Jankipuram, Lucknow - 226 021, UP
| Abstract|| |
This case report showing a classical presentation of bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular incisors in a child patient for dental attention. Fusion defined as the merger of two adjacent tooth germs producing one tooth. These teeth may be fused by enamel, dentin, or both. The fused crown is broader than non fused adjacent teeth and thus resembles gemination. However, tooth counting reveals decreased numbers. Fused teeth are rare in the permanent dentition. The incisors are reported to be fused in primary and permanent dentition, but bilateral fusion is a rare occurrence. Hence the case report of bilateral fusion in an 11-year-old boy is presented.
Keywords: Bilateral fusion, dental sprouts, germination
|How to cite this article:|
Saxena A, Pandey R K, Kamboj M. Bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular incisors: A case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2008;26:32-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Saxena A, Pandey R K, Kamboj M. Bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular incisors: A case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2008 [cited 2013 Jun 20];26:32-3. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2008/26/5/32/41753
| Introduction|| |
Fusion is commonly observed as the union of two distinct dental sprouts which occurs in any stage of the development. Joined by the dentine; pulp chambers and canals may be linked or separated depending on the developmental stage when the union occurs. The prevalence of fusion in permanent dentition is approximately 0.2%  where cases of bilateral fusion are less frequent than unilateral fusion reported to be 0.05%. 
In the anterior region, this anomaly also causes an unpleasant aesthetic tooth shape due to the irregular morphology. These teeth also tend to be greatly predisposed to caries and periodontal disease and, in some cases, endodontic treatment is very complicated. Unfortunately, most of these fusions require surgical removal because of their abnormal morphology and excessive mesiodistal width, which cause problems with spacing, alignment and function. Commonly fusion can occur between teeth of the same dentition, mixed dentitions, or between normal and supernumerary teeth.
| Case Report|| |
An 11-year-old male child was referred to Department of Pedodontics, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, Lucknow with the chief complaint of malaligned upper teeth. During oral examination, it was noticed that number of teeth present in mandibular arch were less than normal and two teeth (31 and 41) were found larger [Figure 1] with missing 32 and 42 Periapical radiographic examination revealed the complete fusion of central and lateral incisors with one root and one pulp canal, [Figure 2],[Figure 3] on both side of mandible, which is an unusual dental anomaly. There was no history of pain or discomfort and incisors were caries free. Family history was not found contributory.
| Discussion|| |
In spite of considerable number of cases reported in the literature, the differential diagnosis between fusion and gemination is difficult some authors use the terms as synonyms , while some differentiated by counting the teeth or by shape of the root. Proper case history, clinical and radiographic examinations can update the information required for the diagnosis of such abnormalities.
It has been thought that some forces or pressure produces impact of the developing tooth germs and subsequent union of enamel organ and the dental papilla resulting in fusion of teeth  or genetic inheritance can be a possible etiology.  If this contact occurs early, at least before calcification begins, the two teeth may be completely united to form a single large tooth. Fused teeth are usually asymptomatic.
According to reviewed literature for bilateral fusion for permanent dentition, only one case of complete fusion of incisors was reported  and one was of an incomplete fusion  Teeth with this abnormality are unaesthetic due to their irregular morphology. They also present a high predisposition to caries, periodontal disease, and spacing problems as fused teeth occupies less space than two separate teeth which may cause diastema. The main periodontal complication in fusion cases occurs due to the presence of fissures or grooves in the union between the teeth involved if it is extended subgingivally and causing accumulation of plaque. The efforts must be directed to understand the root canal anatomy to avoid treatment complications.
| References|| |
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]