Home | About Us | Editorial Board | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions | Subscription | Feedback | e-Alerts | Login 
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
 Users Online: 609  
 
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 211-218
 

Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha - 442 004, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere - 577 004, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College and Hospital, Bhimavaram - 534 202, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication14-Nov-2009

Correspondence Address:
K M Shivakumar
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha - 442 004, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.57655

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Background: Malocclusion has large impact on individual and society in term of discomfort, Quality of Life [QoL] Aims and Objectives: To assess prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 1000, in the age group 12 to 15 year old school children studying in middle and high schools of Davangere city, India. 10 schools were selected by simple random sampling procedure and 100 study subjects were selected proportionately for males and females by using systematic random sampling procedures in each school. Data recorded using proforma consisted DAI components. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: The Chi-square test [x 2 ] was used for comparison of severity of malocclusion. Analysis of Variance [ANOVA] test was used for comparison of mean DAI scores between the age groups and in DAI scores. 'Z' test was used for comparing the mean DAI scores between sex group. Results: Of the 1000 children examined, 518[ 51.8%] were males and 482[ 48.2%] were females. 80.1% school children had ≤ 25 DAI scores with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.7% had 26-30 DAI scores with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 3.7% had 31-35 DAI scores with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment and 0.5% had ≥ 36 DAI scores with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: 80.1% school children had no or minor malocclusion which required no or slight treatment, 19.9% had definite/handicapping malocclusion requiring definite/mandatory orthodontic treatment.


Keywords: Malocclusion, Dental Aesthetic Index, orthodontic treatment needs


How to cite this article:
Shivakumar K M, Chandu G N, Subba Reddy V V, Shafiulla M D. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:211-8

How to cite this URL:
Shivakumar K M, Chandu G N, Subba Reddy V V, Shafiulla M D. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Aug 20];27:211-8. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2009/27/4/211/57655



   Introduction Top


The people equate good dental appearance with success in many aspects. Increased concern for dental appearance during adolescents to early adulthood has been observed. [1] The literal meaning of malocclusion is badbite. [2],[3] The malocclusion can be defined as an occlusion in which there is a malrelationship between the arches in any of the planes or in which there are anomalies in tooth position beyond the normal limits. [3] The individual with malocclusion may feel shy in social contacts, may lose career opportunities and might feel shame about their dental appearance. [4]

Pain and miseries are seldom acute in malocclusion and has a greater impact on society and individual in terms of quality of life, discomfort, social and functional limitations. [2],[5],[6] The reasons to develop malocclusion could be genetic or environmental and/or combination of both the factors along with various local factors such as adverse oral habits, tooth anomalies, form and developmental position of teeth can cause malocclusion. [7] The malocclusion has been shown to affects oral health, increased prevalence of dental caries and can cause temperomandibular joint disorders. [3] The prevalence of malocclusion varies from country to country and among different age and sex group. The prevalence of malocclusion in India varies from 20% - 43%. [2],[8]

The uptake of orthodontic treatment is influenced by the desire to look attractive, self-perception and self-esteem of dental appearance. [9],[10],[11] The benefits of taking orthodontic treatment are to prevention of tissue damage and correction of aesthetic component, improve the physical function. [12] Keeping in view, the WHO has recommended Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) as a method of assessing the dentofacial anomalies. DAI is a cross-cultural index focused on socially defined dental aesthetics. [13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22] Very Few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in India. Hence the present study was designed.

Aims and objectives

To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children in the age group of 12 to 15 year old school children of Davangere city, India.


   Materials and Methods Top


A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 to 15 year school children studying in middle and high schools of Davangere city, India. A Pilot study was carried out to determine the feasibility of the study. According to pilot study, the prevalence of definite malocclusion was 20% and the final study sample calculated was 1000. Before start of the study, an ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Clearance Committee of College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. An official permission was obtained from the Officer of the Deputy Director of Public Instructions (DDPI) office, Davangere city. The study was conducted over a period of six months (1 st July, 2006 to 31 th December, 2006).

Training and calibration of examiner

Oral examination was performed by two trained and calibrated examiners. Before the survey, both the examiners and recording clerks were participated in a training and clinical calibration program in the department. Following this training, 10% of the children were examined by each of the two investigators to assess interexaminer reliability and Kappa values of 0. 87 and 0.88 were found respectively. There was good agreement between the examinations by the same examiner. Davangere City was devided into north and south zone, having 300 middle and high schools in these zones. 10 schools were selected by using simple random sampling procedures. The study subjects were selected by using systematic sampling procedures. 100 school children were examined in each selected school, males and females students were selected proportionately. The interview and examination of a single study subject took 3 to 4 minutes. The children who had or who were having orthodontic treatment including those on interceptive orthodontics were excluded from the study. A survey proforma was prepared with the help of WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. [13]

Examination procedure

Type-III clinical examination as recommended by American Dental Association [ADA] specification was followed. The malocclusion was recorded according to the components of DAI as described by WHO, Oral health Survey, Basic methods [13] by using Community Periodontal Index [CPI] probe and plane mouth mirror. Sufficient number of autoclaved instruments were carried to the examination site to avoid the interruption during the study. After each day of examination, the entire instruments were autoclaved. The school children requiring immediate treatment were referred to College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. The data recorded was transferred from survey proforma to an MS-excel sheet in a computer.

Statistical analysis

The Chi-square test [x 2 ] was used for comparison of severity of malocclusion. Analysis of Variance [ANOVA] test was used for comparison of mean DAI scores between the age groups and in DAI scores. 'Z' test was used for comparing the mean DAI scores between sex group. The probability value of 0.05 or less was set to know the significance level. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software [SPSS version 10.0].


   Results Top


[Table 1] showed the age and sexwise distribution of study population. The study population consisted of about 1000 school children aged 12 to 15 year in Davangere city, out of which 518 [51.8%] were males and 482 [48.2%] were females.

[Table 2] showed the distribution of DAI components. Out of 1000 school children examined, 890[89.0%] had no missing anterior teeth, 110[110%] had one or more missing anterior teeth. Among 518 males examined, 460[88.8%] had no missing anterior teeth, 58[11.2%] had one or more missing anterior teeth. Among 482 females examined, 430 [89.2%] had no missing anterior teeth, 52[10.8%] had one or more missing anterior teeth. The difference was found to be statistically significant among males and females [P< 0.05, S].

For incisal segment crowding a total of 618[61.8%] children had no segment crowding, 382[38.2%] had one or two segment crowding. No statistically significant difference was observed among the study group. [P=0.85, NS]. For incisal segment spacing a total of 735[73.5%] had no segment spacing, 265[26.5%] had one or two segment spacing. No statistically significant difference was observed among the study group [P=0.73 NS].

Out of 1000 school children examined, 817 [81.7%] had no midline diastema, 183[18.3%] had 1 to ≥ 3 mm diastema. Statistically significant results were observed among the study population [P<0.05, S].

No statistically significant difference was observed among the study group for maxillary [P=0.57, NS] and mandibular [P=0.70, NS] anterior teeth irregularity. 931[93.1%] had anterior maxillary overjet of 0 to 2 mm, and 69[6.9%] had > 2 mm of overjet. Out of 518 males examined, 475[91.7%] had anterior maxillary overjet of 0 to 2 mm, and 43[8.3%] had > 2 mm of overjet. However no statistically significant difference was observed among the study group [P=0.08, NS].

Out of 1000 school children examined, 997[99.7%] had no mandibular overjet, 3[0.3%] had 1 to 2 mm mandibular overjet. No statistically significant difference was observed among the study group [P=0.49,NS]. Out of 1000 school children examined, 979[97.9%] had no anterior openbite and 21[2.1%] had 1 to 3 mm of anterior openbite. Out of 518 males examined, 509[98.2%] had no anterior openbite, 9[1.8%] had 1 to 3 mm of anterior openbite [P=0.61, NS]. Out of 1000 school children examined, 916[91.6%] had normal molar relation, 45[4.5%] had half cusp deviation and 39[3.9%] had full cusp deviation. However no statistically significant difference was observed among males and females of the study population [P=0.23, NS].

[Table 3] depicted the age wise distribution of DAI scores and orthodontic treatment needs. 801[80.1%] had ≤ 25 DAI scores with no abnormality or little malocclusion requiring no or slight treatment, 157[15.7%] had 26 - 30 DAI scores with definite malocclusion requiring elective orthodontic treatment, 37[3.7%] had 31 - 35 DAI scores with severe type of malocclusion requiring highly desirable orthodontic treatment, 5 [0.5%] had ≥ 36 DAI scores with very severe or handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory type of orthodontic treatment. Mean DAI score was found to be 19.1 ± 4.4 No statistically significant difference was observed among the study group [P=0.19, NS] as well as mean DAI score [P=0.69, NS] respectively.

[Table 4] showed the sex wise distribution of DAI scores. Out of 518 males examined, 413[79.7%] had ≤ 25 DAI scores, 82[15.8%] had 26 - 30 DAI scores, 20[3.9%] had 31 - 35 DAI Scores, 3[0.6%] had ≥ 36 DAI scores and the mean DAI scores was found to be 19.3 ± 5.6. Out of 482 females examined, 388[80.5%] had ≤ 25 DAI scores, 75[15.6%] had 26 - 30 DAI scores, 17[3.5%] had 31 - 35 DAI Scores, 2[0.4%] had ≥ 36 DAI scores and the mean DAI scores was found to be 19.6 ± 5.1. There was no statistically significant difference found among the sex group [P=0.37, NS] as well as mean DAI scores [P=0.69, NS] respectively.

[Table 5] showed the overall prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs of the study population. Out of 1000 school children examined, 801[80.1%] had ≤ 25 DAI scores with no abnormality or little malocclusion requiring no or slight orthodontic treatment, 157[15.7%] had 26 - 30 DAI scores with definite malocclusion requiring elective orthodontic treatment, 37[3.7%] had 31 - 35 DAI scores with severe type of malocclusion requiring highly desirable orthodontic treatment, 5[0.5%] had ≥ 36 DAI scores with very severe or handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory type orthodontic treatment.


   Discussion Top


The DAI is an orthodontic index used on socially defined aesthetic norms has got regression equation which is reliable that links mathematically the public's perceptions of dental aesthetics with the objective physical measurements of the occlusal traits associated with malocclusion.

Missing anterior teeth

The number of missing permanent incisor, canine and premolar teeth in the upper and lower arches was recorded. A history of all missing anterior teeth was obtained to determine whether extractions were performed for aesthetic reasons. Teeth were not recorded as missing if spaces were closed, if a primary tooth was still in position and its successor has not yet erupted, or if a missing incisor, canine or premolar tooth has been replaced by a fixed prosthesis. [13]

In the current study, 11.0 % of the study population had one or more missing anterior teeth either in maxilla /or mandible and showed statistically significant result among males and females [P < 0.05,S]. The results of the present study were in accordance with the studies by Jenny et al,[23] Johnson and Harkness, [24] Esa et al, [25] Rao et al. [26]

Incisal segment crowding

The crowding in the incisal segment condition in which the available space between the right and left canine teeth is insufficient to accommodate all four incisors in normal alignment and the teeth may be rotated or displaced out of the arch. [13] Crowding of incisal segment affects half of all children in mixed dentitions and it worsens in adolescent years as the permanent teeth erupt and continues to increases as the age progresses. [27]

In the current study, 38.2 % of the study population had incisal crowding. The results of the current study were in correlation with the studies by Otuyemi et al. [28] The results of other studies by Johnson and Harkness, [24] Garcia et al, [29] Sureshbabu et al, [2] showed higher prevalence. The study by Thilander et al, [30] shown that females had more crowding which is in consistency with our study. Generally in most of the malocclusion cases, the incisal segment crowding may be due to the abnormal tooth positions, racial, genetic composition of the study groups.

Incisal segment spacing

Incisal segment spacing is the condition in which the amount of space available between the right and left canine teeth exceeds that required to accommodate all four incisors in normal alignment. If one or more incisor teeth have proximal surfaces without any interdental contact, the segment was recorded as having space. [13] Both the upper and lower incisal segments were examined for spacing. In the present study, 26.5% had incisal segment spacing either in one or both the arches. One of the features of normal occlusion is arch continuity as expressed by proximal contact between all teeth in each dental arch. Factors such as mesial drift and occlusal force direction can contribute to maintenance of this continuity. [31] Higher prevalence were observed by the studies Otuyemi et al, [28] This difference may be attributed due to para functional habits such as thumb sucking habits, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting dento-alveolar discrepancies and jaw size discrepancies. Studies by Gauba et al, [32] said that the frequency of abnormal oral habits in children with malocclusion was found to be 10.3%.

Midline diastema

A midline diastema is defined as the space, in millimeters, between the two permanent maxillary incisors at the normal position of the contact points. [13]

Of the 1000 school children examined, 18.3% had midline diastema [≥ 1mm] showed significant result among males and females of the study population [P< 0.05, S]. In the developing dentition at the age of 8 to 12 years, the presence of diastema is regarded as a normal phenomenon [Ugly Duckling stage]. [3],[31] In the absence of a deep overbite these spaces normally close spontaneously. [31] Similar results were observed by Esa et al. [25] The results of studies by Johnson and Harkness, [24] Otuyemi et al, [28] showed higher prevalence for midline diastema. This could be due to that the children may had different deleterious oral habits, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, microdontia, abnormal labial frenum, dilacerations of central incisor and dento-alveolar discrepancies of the jaws. Females children showed higher prevalence of 23.9% when compared to the male children [13.1%] showing statistically significant result [P < 0.05]. This is in accordance with the studies by Steigman and Weissberg. [33]

Maxillary anterior irregularity

Maxillary anterior irregularity may be either rotations out of, or displacements from, normal alignment and the incisors in the maxillary arch should be examined to locate the greatest irregularity. Irregularities may occur with or without crowding. [13] In the current study 25.6% of the study subjects had ≥ 1 mm of maxillary anterior irregularity. In contrast, higher prevalence were observed by Otuyemi et al, [28] Esa et al. [25] The difference could be due to genetic difference and environmental factors.

Mandibular anterior irregularity

Mandibular anterior irregularity may be either rotations out of or displacements from, normal alignment and the incisors in the mandibular arch should be examined to locate the greatest irregularity. [13] In the present study, 19.3% had ≥ 1 mm mandibular anterior irregularity. But the studies by Chi et al, [21] Rao et al[26] showed higher prevalence. This difference could be due to the genetic and racial composition of the study groups.

Maxillary overjet

Maxillary overjet is the measurement of the horizontal relation of the incisors with the teeth in centric occlusion. The distance from the labial-incisal edge of the most prominent upper incisor to the labial surface of the corresponding lower incisor was measured. [13] The results of the current study indicated that 93.1% of the subjects presented with a normal maxillary overjet of 0 to 2 mm and 6.9 % presented with > 2 mm of maxillary overjet. These results were in correlation with the studies by Brunelle et al [34] , Al-Emran et al, [35] But higher prevalence was observed by the studies Harrison and Davis. [36] This could be due to difference in geographical location and population by gender differences.

Mandibular overjet

Mandibular overjet was recorded when any lower incisor protrudes anteriorly or labially to the opposing upper incisor, i.e., is in crossbite. Mandibular overjet was not recorded if a lower incisor was rotated so that one part of the incisal edge is in crossbite [i.e., labial to the upper incisor]. [13] In the present study, 0.3% of study subjects recorded anterior mandibular overjet with ≥ 1 mm But the studies by Burden et al [37] and Hill [38] showed higher prevalence for mandibular overjet.This difference could be attributed to variation in growth and disproportion in the dento-alveolar width and genetic predisposition.

Vertical anterior openbite

Vertical anterior openbite is a lack of vertical overlap between any of the opposing pairs of incisors. [13] In the present study, 2.1% of study subjects were presented with ≥ 1 mm vertical anterior openbite. Similar results were observed by Hill. [38] The studies by Nganga et al,[39] showed higher prevalence for mandibular overjet. This difference could be due to variation in development and maturation of the arches and the children may had different deleterious oral habits, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, and dento-alveolar discrepancies of the jaws. However, no statistically significant differences have been observed in the present study.

Antero-posterior molar relationship

The antero-posterior molar relation is most oftenly based on the relation of the permanent upper and lower first molars. The right and the left side were assessed with the teeth in occlusion and only the largest deviation from the normal relation. [13] In the current study 91.6 % of the school children had normal antero-posterior molar relationship, 4.5 % had half cusp deviation and 3.9 % had full cusp deviation. Similar results were observed by the studies Otuyemi et al[28] and Sureshbabu et al. [2]

DAI score distribution

In the present study, 80.1% of school children had ≤ 25 DAI scores with no abnormality or minor malocclusion requiring no or slight orthodontic treatment need, 15.7% had 26 - 30 DAI scores with definite malocclusion requiring elective orthodontic treatment, 3.7% had 31 - 35 DAI scores with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable orthodontic treatment and 0.5% had ≥ 36 DAI scores with very severe/ handicapping malocclusion requiring definite/mandatory orthodontic treatment. The results of the present study were in correlation with the studies by National Oral Health survey and fluoride mapping-India [8] and Nelson et al. [40]


   Conclusion Top


From the results of the study, it can be concluded that 801[80.1%] of school children had little or no malocclusion requiring no or little orthodontic treatment need, 199[19.9%] of school children had malocclusion ranging from definite to handicapping malocclusion requiring elective to mandatory type of orthodontic treatment. The DAI is relatively a simple, reproducible and a valid index. It can be used as a practical tool for epidemiologists and other dental personnel for screening orthodontic treatment need. The DAI appears to be the easiest to use and it does not take into account buccal cross bite, posterior openbite, central line discrepancies or a deep overbite, these factors may have considerable impact on treatment complexity and therefore weakens the index. Malocclusion is not only a single entity but rather a collation of situations each in itself constituting a problem and any of the situations are complicated by a multiplicity of genetic and environmental causes.Further more emphasis should be given on proper preventive and interceptive orthodontic services to the affected group.


   Acknowledgement Top


The authors would like to thank the management, Staff and postgraduate students, paradental staff, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere and also Mr. Sangam, Biostatistician for their kind help during the entire course of the study.

 
   References Top

1.Onyeaso CO, Sanu OO. Perception of personal dental appearance in Nigerian adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2005;127:700-6.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Sureshbabu AM, Chandu GN, Shafiulla MD. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 13 - 15 year old school going children of Davangere city, Karnataka, India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2005;6:32-5.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Housten WJ. Walther's orthodontic notes. 4 th ed. The Stonebridge Publishers; 2000.   Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Klages U, Bruckner A, Zentner A. Dental aesthetics, self awareness and oral health related quality of life in young adults. Eur J Orthod 2004;26:507-14.   Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Ansai T, Miyazaki H, Katoh Y, Yamashita Y, Takehara T, Jenny J, et al. Prevalence of malocclusion in high school students in Japan according to the Dental Aesthetic Index. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993;21:303-5.   Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Mclain JB, Proffitt WR. Oral health status: Prevalence of malocclusion. J Dent Edu 1985;49:386-96.   Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Miitchell L, Carter NE, Doubleday B. An introduction to orthodontics. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; 2001.   Back to cited text no. 7      
8.National Oral Health Survey and Fluoride Mapping [India], 2002-03, Dental Council of India, New Delhi: 2004.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Elham SJ, Alhaija A, Kazem S, Al-Nimri, Susan N, Al-Khateed. Self perception of malocclusion among north Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005;27:292-5.   Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Soh J, Sandham A. Orthodontic treatment need in Asian adult males. Angle Orthod 2004;74:769-73.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Downer MC. Craniofacial anomalies: Are they a public health problem? Int Dent J 1987;37:193-6.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Cons NC, Jenny J, Kohout FJ. Utility of the Dental Aesthetic Index in industrialized and developing countries. J Public Health Dent 1989;49:163-6.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.WHO - Oral Health Survey, Basic methods. 4 th ed. New Delhi: AITBS Publishers and distributors; ; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Jenny J, Cons NC. Establishing malocclusion severity levels on the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] Scale. Aust Dent J 1996;41:43-6.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Keay PA, Freer TJ, Basford KE. Orthodontic treatment need and the Dental Aesthetic Index. Aust Orthod J 1993;13:4-7.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Onyeaso CO. An assessment of relationship between self esteem, orthodontic concern, and Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] scores among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Int Dent J 2003;53:79-84.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Otuyemi OD, Noar JH. A comparison between DAI and SCAN in estimating orthodontic treatment need. Int Dent J 1996;46:35-40.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Cons NC, Jenny J, Kohout FJ, Jakobsen J, Shi Y, Ying WH, et al. Comparing ethnic group-specific DAI equations with the standard DAI. Int Dent J 1994;44:153-8.  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Onyeaso CO, BeGole EA. Orthodontic treatment need in an accredited graduate orthodontic cener in North America: A Pilot Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006;7:87-94.  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Beglin FM, Firestone AR, Katheine WL, Beck FM, Kuthy RA, Wade D. A comparison of reliability and validity of occlusal indexes of orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001;120:240-6.   Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Chi J, Johnson M, Harkness M. Age changes in orthodontic treatment need: A longitudinal study of 10 and 13 year old children, using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Aust Orthod J 2000;16:150-6.   Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Onyeaso CO. Orthodontic treatment need of Nigerian outpatients assessed with the Dental Aesthetic Index. Aust Orthod J 2004;20:19-23.  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Jenny J, Cons NC, Kohout FJ, Jakobsen J. Difference in need for orthodontic treatment between Native Americans and the general population based on DAI Scores. J Public Health Dent 1991;51:234-8.  Back to cited text no. 23      
24.Johnson M, Harkness M. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 10 year old New Zealand children. Aust Orthod J 2000;16:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 24      
25.Esa R, Razak IA, Allister JH. Epidemiology of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of 12 - 13 year old Malaysian school children. Community Dent Health 2001;18:31-6.  Back to cited text no. 25      
26.Rao DB, Hegde AM, Munshi AK. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of handicapped individuals in South Canara, India. Int Dent J 2003;53:13-8.  Back to cited text no. 26      
27.Profitt WR. Contemporary orthodontics. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Harcourt [India] Private Limited; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 27      
28.Otuyemi OD, Ogunyinka A, Dosumu O, Cons NC, Jenny J. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of secondary school students in Nigeria according to the dental aesthetic index [DAI]. Int Dent J 1999:49:203-10.   Back to cited text no. 28      
29.Garcia AB, Bravo M, Baca P, Baca A, Junco P. Malocclusions and orthodontic treatment needs in a group of Spanish adolescents using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Int Dent J 2004;54:138-42.  Back to cited text no. 29      
30.Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, Mayorga CD. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia: An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod 2001;23:153-67.  Back to cited text no. 30      
31.Moyer's RE. Handbook of orthodontics. 4th ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc.; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 31      
32.Gauba K, Ashima G, Tewari A, Utreja A. Prevalence of malocclusion and abnormal oral habits in North Indian rural children. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 1998;16:32-6.  Back to cited text no. 32      
33.Steigman S, Weissberg Y. Spaced dentition: An epidemiologic study. Angle Orthod 1985;52:167-78.  Back to cited text no. 33      
34.Brunelle JA, Bhat M, Lipton JA. Prevalence and distribution of selected occlusal characteristics in the US population 1988-1991. J Dent Res 1996;75:706-13.  Back to cited text no. 34      
35.Al-Emran S, Wisth PJ, Boe OE. Prevalence of malocclusion and need for orthodontic treatment in Saudi Arabia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1990;18:253-5.  Back to cited text no. 35      
36.Harrison RL, Davis DW. Dental malocclusion in native children of British Columbia, Canada. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1996;24:217-21.  Back to cited text no. 36      
37.Burden DJ, Pine CM, Burnside G. Modified IOTN: An orthodontic treatment need index for use in oral health surveys. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001;29:220-5.  Back to cited text no. 37      
38.Hill PA. The prevalence and severity of malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment in 9, 12 and 15 year old Glasgow school children. Br J Orthod 1992;19:87-96.  Back to cited text no. 38      
39.Nganga PM, Ohito F, Ogaard B, Valderhaug J. The prevalence of malocclusion in 13 to 15 year old children in Nairobi, Kenya. Acta Odontol Scand 1996;54:126-30.  Back to cited text no. 39      
40.Nelson S, Armogan V, Abei Y, Broadbent BH, Hans M. Disparity in orthodontic utilization and treatment need among high school students. J Public Health Dent 2004;64:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 40      



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


This article has been cited by
1 Dentofacial and Cranial Changes in Down Syndrome
Deepika Shukla,Deepika Bablani,Aman Chowdhry,Raveena Thapar,Puneet Gupta,Shashwat Mishra
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Prevalence of malocclusion and its relationship with caries among school children aged 11 - 15 years in southern India
Jagan Kumar Baskaradoss,Amrita Geevarghese,Clement Roger,Anil Thaliath
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics. 2013; 43(1): 35
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Prevalence of malocclusion in four zones of Karnataka state school children using Ackermann–Proffit system – An epidemiological survey
Roopa Siddegowda,M.S. Rani
Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section). 2013; 27(4): 113
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Prevalence of malocclusion and its relationship with caries among school children aged 11 - 15 years in southern India
Baskaradoss, J.K. and Geevarghese, A. and Roger, C. and Thaliath, A.
Korean Journal of Orthodontics. 2013; 43(1): 35-41
[Pubmed]
5 Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil
Thomaz, E.B.A.F. and Cangussu, M.C.T. and Assis, A.M.O.
Brazilian Oral Research. 2013; 27(1): 62-69
[Pubmed]
6 Prevalence of malocclusions and orthodontic treatment need in 8- to 12-year-old schoolchildren in Casablanca, Morocco
Bourzgui, F. and Sebbar, M. and Hamza, M. and Lazrak, L. and Abidine, Z. and El Quars, F.
Progress in Orthodontics. 2012; 13(2): 164-172
[Pubmed]
7 To determine the prevalence rate of malocclusion among 12 to 14-year-old schoolchildren of urban Indian population (Bagalkot)
Phaphe, S. and Kallur, R. and Vaz, A. and Gajapurada, J. and Sugaraddy and Mattigatti, S.
Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2012; 13(3): 316-321
[Pubmed]
8 Prevalence of malocclusions and orthodontic treatment need in 8- to 12-year-old schoolchildren in Casablanca, Morocco
Farid Bourzgui,Mourad Sebbar,Mouna Hamza,Laila Lazrak,Zouhair Abidine,Farid El Quars
Progress in Orthodontics. 2012; 13(2): 164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 The dental aesthetic index and dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need as tools in epidemiological studies
Cardoso, C.F., Drummond, A.F., Lages, E.M.B., Pretti, H., Ferreira, E.F., Abreu, M.H.N.G.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(8): 3277-3286
[Pubmed]
10 The Dental Aesthetic Index and Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need as Tools in Epidemiological Studies
Chrystiane F. Cardoso,Alexandre F. Drummond,Elisabeth M.B. Lages,Henrique Pretti,Efigênia F. Ferreira,Mauro Henrique N.G. Abreu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(12): 3277
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index and its association with dental caries in Indian schoolchildren
Singh, A. and Purohit, B. and Sequeira, P. and Acharya, S. and Bhat, M.
Community Dental Health. 2011; 28(4): 313-316
[Pubmed]
12 An overview of the prevalence of malocclusion in 6 to 10-year-old children in Brazil
Bittencourt, M.A.V. and Machado, A.W.
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics. 2010; 15(6): 113-122
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

 
  Search
 
   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (199 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    Conclusion
    Acknowledgement
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed15317    
    Printed252    
    Emailed10    
    PDF Downloaded1180    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 12    

Recommend this journal


Contact us | Sitemap | Advertise | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer 
 © 2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
Online since 1st May '05