Home | About Us | Editorial Board | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions | Subscription | Feedback | e-Alerts | Login 
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
 Users Online: 1734  
 
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 60-67
 

Morphological characteristics of primary dentition in children of Chennai and Hyderabad


1 Senior Lecturer, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Mamata Dental College & Hospital, Giriprasad Nagar, Khammam, India
2 Reader, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Maratha Mandal's Dental College & Research Center, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India
3 Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College & Hospital, Maduravoyal, Chennai-600 095, India
4 Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College & Hospital, Bhimavaram, A.P, India
5 Professor & Head, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, Chinthareddyalem, Nellore-524002. AP, India

Date of Web Publication24-Jul-2010

Correspondence Address:
M S Muthu
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College & Hospital, Alappakkam Main Road, Maduravoyal, Chennai - 600 095
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.66736

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of deciduous teeth of children in Chennai and Hyderabad, by establishing normal data on the mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions in 3-5 year old children. Materials and Methods: Study casts of 200 children (100 boys and 100 girls) from two groups (Chennai and Hyderabad) were used in this study. Digital caliper was used to measure the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions. Results and Conclusion: Significant differences were found in the mean values of mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of primary teeth, in which boys generally had larger crown diameters than girls.


Keywords: Buccolingual dimension, crown size, digital caliper, mandibular teeth, maxillary teeth, mesiodistal dimension


How to cite this article:
Koora K, Sriram C H, Muthu M S, Rao R C, Sivakumar N. Morphological characteristics of primary dentition in children of Chennai and Hyderabad. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2010;28:60-7

How to cite this URL:
Koora K, Sriram C H, Muthu M S, Rao R C, Sivakumar N. Morphological characteristics of primary dentition in children of Chennai and Hyderabad. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Nov 22];28:60-7. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2010/28/2/60/66736



   Introduction Top


The mesiodistal crown width and occlusion in the deciduous dentition play a significant role in determining space and occlusion in the permanent dentition. One of the most critical factors in dental arch development and the relation of the arches to one another is mesiodistal diameter of the tooth. Thus, the space necessary to allow the proper alignment of all teeth within the dental arch is the sum of all mesiodistal widths of the teeth to fit within that arch. Tooth size is largely determined by heredity. The hereditary factors which determine the size of the teeth and size of the arches are independent and do not have any correlation. As a result, the discrepancy between the tooth size and arch size can lead to crowding or spacing of the teeth.

According to Moorrees and Reed, [1] the size of the teeth is dependent upon race and sex. Morphology of the teeth must be studied and understood completely as it affects dental arch development. The purpose of this study was to measure the mesiodistal and labiolingual dimensions of primary dentition in children of Chennai and Hyderabad.


   Materials and Methods Top


This study was planned and carried out in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. By conducting this study, we attempted to compare the morphological characteristics of primary dentition in school children from two cities, Chennai and Hyderabad. The study sample consisted of 200 children (100 boys and girls from Chennai and 100 boys and girls from Hyderabad), of age ranging from 3 to 5 years, from different schools [Figure 1].

The selection criteria were the following.

  1. Children with complete set of deciduous dentition
  2. Age of the children between 3 and 5 years
  3. No restoration of any kind present.
  4. No obvious loss of tooth material mesiodistally or buccolingually as a result of caries, fracture or excessive wear.
  5. Only fully erupted deciduous teeth were measured.
  6. No congenital absent or deformed teeth should be present.


The models of the complete deciduous dentition were prepared by taking alginate impressions and pouring immediately with dental stone. A digital caliper (DentagaugeTM 2, Erskine dental, New South Wales, Australia) was used to measure the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the teeth.

The mesiodistal crown width was measured as the greatest distance between the mesial and distal surfaces of the crown, parallel to the occlusal surface [Figure 2]. The buccolingual crown dimension was obtained by measuring the greatest distance between the buccal and lingual surface of the crown, perpendicular to the occlusal surface [Figure 3].

Measurements of the following five teeth on each side and in both dental arches were recorded in a proforma. The teeth measured were deciduous central incisor (A), deciduous lateral incisor (B), deciduous canine (C), deciduous first molar (D) and deciduous second molar in both the arches.

The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The mean and standard deviation were estimated from the sample for each study group. The mean values were compared by either student's independent t-test or student's paired t-test appropriately. In the present study, P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Repeatability test was also done by randomly selecting five dental casts from the boys and five from the girls of each group (20 models). All the 20 casts were remeasured to assess the examiner reliability for the variables. These data were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient test.


   Results Top


The mean values and standard deviation of mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of primary teeth are given in [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4],[Table 5],[Table 6],[Table 7],[Table 8],[Table 9],[Table 10],[Table 11],[Table 12].

Dimensions of incisors

The mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular incisors did not show any significant difference between the groups and right and left sides.

The mesiodistal dimensions of maxillary and mandibular incisors were greater in males than in females in group 1. The buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular incisors were greater in males than in females in group 1 except for mandibular lateral incisors.

The mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular incisors were greater in males than in females in group 2 except for mandibular lateral incisors.

The buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular incisors in right and left sides did not show any significant difference between the sexes except for the maxillary left lateral incisors, which showed a significant difference in group 2.

Dimensions of canines

The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular canines showed a greater significant difference in group 1 than in group 2 except for the buccolingual dimensions of right and left mandibular canines.

The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular canines in group 1 did not show any significant difference between the sexes except for the right and left maxillary canines and left mandibular canine which showed a greater significant difference in males than in females.

The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular canines in group 2 showed a greater significant difference in males than in females except for the mesiodistal dimensions of mandibular right canines.

Dimensions of molars

The mesiodistal dimensions of maxillary and mandibular molars showed a greater significant difference in group 1 than in group 2 except for the maxillary right molars and maxillary left first molars.

The buccolingual dimension of maxillary and mandibular molars did not show any significant difference between group 1 and group 2 except for the maxillary right molars.

The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of maxillary and mandibular molars in group 1 showed a greater significant difference in males than in females except for the mesiodistal dimensions of maxillary right molars and mandibular second molars.

The mesiodistal dimensions of maxillary and mandibular molars in group 2 showed a greater significant difference in males than in females except for the maxillary right molars, left second molars and mandibular right second molars.

The buccolingual dimensions of mandibular molars showed a greater significant difference in males than in females except for the buccolingual dimensions of maxillary molars.

In the mean mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions, there was no statistically significant difference between right and left antemere teeth for all of the deciduous teeth in both the sexes.

There was a significant consistency or agreement of values within cases in the repeatability analysis for all the parameters estimated. The P value was <0.05


   Discussion Top


Morphological characteristics' data of deciduous teeth are very valuable tools for pediatric dentists, orthodontists and anthropologists in treating malocclusion and in identification of the diseased in crimes. Many researches employed sliding caliper with a vernier scale to obtain the metrical data of the teeth, [2],[3],[4],[5] whereas in our study we used latest digital caliper. A study by Richardson and Malhotra [2] revealed that both the mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions were larger in boys than in girls. Black [6] in his study, proved the sexual dimorphism in the tooth crown diameter of the deciduous teeth. Abu Alhaija et al. [7] studied the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of primary teeth in which males had greater dimensions than that of females. Margetts and Brown [8] showed that mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the deciduous dentition of males were larger than that of females for all primary tooth types. The sexual dimorphism was less marked in primary teeth compared to that of permanent teeth. Tsai [3] revealed that mean mesiodistal crown dimensions of the deciduous canine, first and second molars and the mean buccolingual crown dimensions of the deciduous second molars in the both dental arches of boys were significantly larger than that of girls. The findings of Sugiyama [9] revealed that there were differences in the tooth size between Japanese and Chinese. The mean mesiodistal crown dimensions of the deciduous second molars of the both dental arches in Japanese were larger than in Chinese. The mean buccolingual crown dimensions of the maxillary deciduous incisors in Japanese were larger than in Chinese. However, the mandibular deciduous first molar was larger in Chinese than in Japanese. Primary teeth and permanent teeth in Caucasians were generally smaller than in northern Chinese. [4]

Anderson [10] evaluated the mesiodistal primary tooth size diameter in an African American population and compared it with existing African American and European American norms. He concluded that intra and interracial sex differences exist in the primary teeth of both children, with few exceptions. The mesiodistal crown size differences and sexual dimorphism appear to be larger for the African American children.

In our study, the deciduous canine and first primary molars have the greatest diameter in both dental arches of both sexes, whereas the maxillary lateral and mandibular central incisors in each arch of both sexes have the smallest diameter. The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of group I (Chennai) showed a greater significant difference than that of group II. Similar results were reported by Sugiyama [9] The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of group I males showed a greater significant difference than that of females. Similar results were reported by Richardson and Malhotra [2] and Black. [3] The mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of group II males showed a greater significant difference than that of females. Similar results were reported by Tsai. [3] In the mean mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions, there were no statistically significant differences between right and left teeth.

In our study there was statistical significant difference in the buccolingual diameter between genders in both the groups for mandibular canine. Moreover there was also a statistical significant difference in the buccolingual diameter between gender in group2 for mandibular first primary and second primary molar. Similar gender differences were also found in Taiwanese children for buccolingual diameter of second mandibular primary molar. [11]

Information about the sizes of primary teeth in Indian children is sparse. Hence, our findings from this study can serve as baseline values for the sizes of primary teeth in Indian children. These data about the sizes of primary teeth can be used in treatment planning regarding space management, operative dentistry and management of malocclusion.

 
   References Top

1.Moorrees CF, Reed RB. Correlation among crown diameters of human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1964 9:685-697.  Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]    
2.Richardson ER, Malhotra SK. Mesiodistal crown dimension of the permanent dentition of American Negroes. Am J Orthod 1975;68:157-64.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]    
3.Tsai HH. Morphological characteristics of the deciduous teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2001;25:95-101.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]    
4.Yuen KK, So LL, Tang EL. Mesiodistal crown diameters of the primary and permanent teeth in southern Chinese-a longitudinal study. Eur J Orthod 1997;19:721-31.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Arya BS, Thomas DR, Savara BS, Clarkson QD. Correlations among tooth sizes in a sample of Oregon Caucasoid children. Hum Biol 1974;46:693-8.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]    
6.Black TK 3 rd . Sexual dimorphism in the tooth -crown diameter of the deciduous teeth. Am J Phys Anthropol 1978;48:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Abu Alhaija ES, Qudeimat MA. Occlusion and tooth/ arch dimensions in the primary dentition of preschool Jordanian children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2003;13:230-9.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
8.Margetts B, Brown T. Crown diameters of the deciduous teeth in Australian aboriginals. Am J Phys Anthropol 1978;48:493-502.  Back to cited text no. 8  [PUBMED]    
9.Sugiyama K. A Morphological study of the Japanese Deciduous teeth by Measurement. Aichi Gakuin Daigaku Shigakkai Shi 1969;7:149-80.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]    
10.Anderson AA. Dentition and occlusion development in African children: Mesiodistal crown diameters and Tooth size ratios of primary teeth. Pediatr Dent 2005;27:121-8.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
11.Liu HH, Dung SZ, Yang YH. Crown diameters of the deciduous teeth of Taiwanese. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2000;16:299-307.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12]


This article has been cited by
1 Tooth crown dimensions of primary dentition in the Nigerian population | [Dimenzije zubnih kruna u mliječnoj denticiji kod djece u Nigeriji]
Eigbobo, J., Sote, E., Oredugba, F.
Acta Stomatologica Croatica. 2010; 44(4): 269-277
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

 
  Search
 
   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (1,803 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
    Introduction
    Results
    Discussion
    Materials and Me...
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed8167    
    Printed279    
    Emailed6    
    PDF Downloaded739    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


Contact us | Sitemap | Advertise | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer 
  2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
Online since 1st May '05