|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 245-248
A cross sectional study of dermatoglyphics and dental caries in Bengalee children
Asok bijoy sengupta1, Badruddin Ahmed Bazmi2, Subrata Sarkar2, Sudipta Kar2, Chiranjit Ghosh3, Hajara Mubtasum4
1 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Calcutta Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Science and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bhuvaneshwar, India
4 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, SB Patil Institute Science and Research, Bidar, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||21-Nov-2013|
Badruddin Ahmed Bazmi
"Keshab residency" Block-1, Flat-1F 138 keshab chandra sen street Kolkata - 700 009, West Bengal
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Context: Dermatoglyphic is the permanent imprint found in hands. Variations of dermatoglyphic patterns among the individuals have been noted. Aims: To find out the dermatoglyphic pattern variations in dental caries between study group and the control group. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done on 300 Bengalee children of Kolkata between the age group of 4-14 years. Materials and Methods: The samples were divided into two groups; study group and control group. Dental caries were detected clinically using mouth mirror and probe in daylight. Ink was applied on palm and finger by pressure pad. Bilateral palm and finger prints were taken by placing the palm and fingers over glazed paper and applying pressure over palm. Finger and palm prints obtained were inspected by magnifying glass for the study of different dermatoglyphic parameters. Statistical analysis used: Analytical statistical method with the help of student's t-test was used to determine mean values and gender differences in the findings using SPSS version 11.0. Results: The characteristic feature which shows significant increase in caries sample group were increased total finger ridge count (TRFC) and absolute finger ridge count (AFRC) on fingers, representing pattern size and types. ab count and tr count were significantly lower in male and female caries sample group compared with the control group. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between caries and control group in different patterns and number of "tri radii on fingers" in fingers, the percentage of patterns on all palmar areas, total number of triradii on palm and main line index. Perhaps more systematic larger samples consisting of different genetic population are necessary to verify the conclusion.
Keywords: Dental caries, dermatoglyphics, dermatoglyphic variations
|How to cite this article:|
sengupta Ab, Bazmi BA, Sarkar S, Kar S, Ghosh C, Mubtasum H. A cross sectional study of dermatoglyphics and dental caries in Bengalee children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2013;31:245-8
|How to cite this URL:|
sengupta Ab, Bazmi BA, Sarkar S, Kar S, Ghosh C, Mubtasum H. A cross sectional study of dermatoglyphics and dental caries in Bengalee children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 17];31:245-8. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2013/31/4/245/121823
| Introduction|| |
The word "Dermatoglyphics" is originated from two greek words "Dermato" means skin and "Glyphics" meaning carving.  The term "dermatoglyphics" was proposed by Harold Cummins in the year 1926. In ancient India, ridge pattern study was known as ''Samudra Shastra". The epidermal ridge pattern were classified into "Chakra, Shankya and Padma" which corresponds with the Whorl, Loop and Arch system of modern classification. 
Grew in 1684 was the first person, in the Western World, to study dermatoglyphics.  In the year 1923, Parkinjee classified epidermal ridge patterns into nine types.  William Herschel (1880) used fingerprints for personal identification purpose in India. 
Many investigators noted dermatoglyphic variations between normal individuals and patients affected by chromosomal anomalies like trisomy 8, trisomy 13, trisomy 18.  Sharma et al., and Kharbanda et al., noted dermatoglyphic variations in mandibular retrognathism and prognathism cases. Adams and Niswander  noted dermatoglyphic variations in cleft lip and palate cases. Atasu  (1998) noted dermatoglyphic variations in dental caries.
Reasons for the above variations in dermatoglyphic findings associated with various diseases and syndromes may be attributed to the fact that, morphogenesis of dermatoglyphic structures and organogenesis are co-incident with same time period and programmed by genetic expressions which are interrelated.  Some investigators suggested both the dermal patterns and craniofacial organs are genetically governed structures, subject to modification by intra-uterine environment. So, affliction of any one of the organs will adversely affect dermatoglyphics also. 
As many investigators have found the variations of dermatoglyphic patterns and chromosomal diseases, this study was undertaken to find out the relation between dermatoglyphic pattern variations and dental caries in Bengalee children of Kolkata, which will enable an early detection of the diseases and thus helps in prevention ofdental caries.
| Aims and Objectives|| |
Aim of the present study was to find out dermatoglyphic pattern variations in dental caries between study group and control group.
Dental caries is a global problem. Earlier detection of dental caries will enable earlier preventive measures. Objective of the present study is to prevent this disease in earlier stage by dermatoglyphic variations, wherein the prophylaxis will start earlier and thus the disease can be prevented to a greater extent.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
The present study was conducted on Bengalee children from Kolkata. A total of 300 male and female children ranging between 4-14 years of age were taken as the sample for the study. Random sampling technique was used. The samples (carious group) were divided into boys (100) and girls (100). They had caries on ten or more teeth. Caries free children (boys and girls) were selected as control group subjects. (n = 100). Children with maxillofacial trauma/pathology/developmental defects, medical complication, and with previous orthodontic treatment of any kind were excluded from the study.
Dental caries were detected clinically, using mouth mirror and probe in daylight. Study group subjects were selected from Dept. of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College and Hospital followed by recording of dermatoglyphic pattern of hand.
Following materials were used for recording dermatoglyphic variations:
a. Mouth mirror
b. Dental probe
c. Inking slab of thick glass
d. Pressure pad
f. Glazed paper
g. Kores Xerox ink
h. 5X magnification glass
j. Light source
The following dermatoglyphic parameters were compared between the study and control group [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]:
A. On the Finger tips
1. Finger-tip pattern (type and percentage)
(According to Cummins and Middlo, 1943)
i. Whorls (W)
ii. Radial loop (R)
iii. Ulnar loop (U)
iv. Arch (A)
2. Total finger ridge count (TFRC)
(According to Holt, 1961)
3. Absolute finger ridge count (AFRC)
(According to Mukherjee, 1967)
4. Number of triradius at finger tips (trF)
(According to Mukherjee, 1966)
B. On the Palms
1. ab ridge count
(According to Fang, 1949)
2. Main line index
(According to Cummins and Midlo, 1943)
c. Number of triradius on palm
(According to Cummins and Midlo, 1943)
d. Palm patterns (types and percentage)
(According to Cummins and Midlo, 1943)
i. Hypothenar area (H)
ii. Thenar and Ist inter digital area (Th/I)
iii. Inter digital II area (I2)
iv. Inter digital II area (I3)
v. Interdigital IV area ( I4)
The study sample and their guardian were explained the purpose and their consent was obtained. The subjects were motivated to remain calm, relaxed, and passive, when the prints were taken. Ink was applied on palm and finger by pressure pad. Rolled prints of finger were taken by rolling the fingers over the glazed paper, which was first placed on the glass slab. Bilateral palm and finger prints were taken by placing the palm and fingers over glazed paper and applying pressure over palm. Finger and palm prints obtained were inspected by magnifying glass for the study of different dermatoglyphic parameters,
Results were measured thrice and the mean result was statistically evaluated.
| Results|| |
A total of 300 Bengalee children were taken under the study, out of which 200 were studied samples and 100 were control samples. [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
On whorls study
From the above [Table 2] it is observed that in male caries sample shows significant decrease in the percentage of whorls (Z = 1.94 P < 0.05 ) compared with no-caries controls; but in female caries sample a reverse trend is observed, were the whorls are significantly higher in caries group than the control sample (Z = 4.12 P < 0.001).
On ulnar loops study
In males caries sample group, ulnar loops were more than the controls but not statistically significant. But in female, a reverse trend is observed, that is statistically significant, lesser ulnar loops are found in the study group than in control (Z = 2.03 P < 0.05).
On radial groups
In male study group, the radial loops are only 1% but were absent in the control group but was not statistically significant, whereas in female study group, the radial loops were absent but 3% occurs in control group which is on the verge of significance (Z = 1.9).
On arches value
In males the percentage of arches is 4%, where as in the control group it is 1% which is not statistically significant. But in females, there is absence of arches in the study group and significantly increased (15%) in the control group (Z = 3.3 P < 0.001).
From the above table it is seen that in male group the difference failed to reach statistically significant level (P > 0.01+value = 1.21). But in female group it is statistically significant higher (P > 0.01+value = 5.04).
Values of AFRC count demonstrated the same trend of decrease from the carious group to control group. It is noted that, the difference between male study and control group is not statistically significant (P < 0.05, t = 1.72), but in female group it reaches the significant level (P < 0.001, t = 4.05).
In males of control group, the value was significantly higher than of carious group value (P < 0.01, t = 3.30) whereas in females the value of carious group was significantly higher than non-carious group (P < 0.001, t = 6.69).
From [Table 5] and [Table 6] it is observed that TRF value in the carious group and non-carious control group children was similar. Whereas the TFRC and AFRC values of studied carious group was significantly higher than non-carious group (P < 0.001).
|Table 5: Shows the comparison of TRF, TFRC, and AFRC in boys and girls of both the groups|
Click here to view
|Table 6: Depicts comparison of TRF, TFRC, AFRC in carious and non-carious group|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Development is the progress towards maturity. In intra-uterine period, these processes are dependent on both genetic and environmental determinants. Growth and development takes place by cytoplasmonuclear interaction.  Many anatomists noted that the dermatoglyphic morphogenesis of both hand and feet begins at 4-5 weeks of gestation by initiation of volar pad formation. Migration of neural crest cells starts at 35 th day after gestation and their proper migration along the cleavage plane is necessary for proper dermatoglyphic development. Proper distribution of capillary-neurite pair under dermis is also a requisite for pattern development. 
The key figure in the development of dematoglyphic study was done by Czech doctor Jan Purkinjie. He suggested that the dermatoglyphic patterns might have both genetic and diagnostic importance.  Danuta Loesch  noted that the diagnostic application of dematoglyphics should be confined to chromosomal anomalies and disorders of limb growth, because in other diseases any deviations from normal are too small to be of value for diagnostic discrimination. Dental caries demonstrates the graded continuous variation pattern, where sharp distinction between the average and higher afflictions are not possible. Only two extreme differences such as "no caries" and caries on "ten or more teeth" may be expected to demonstrate noticeable variations.
As the studies of dermatoglyphics with dental caries are scanty only two studies are found. The present study do not corroborate with the findings of Metin Atasu,  where caries free persons have more ulnar loops on finger tips whereas the person with caries on ten or more teeth had increased frequency of whorls on finger tips. The result of the present study is partially concurrent with the findings of Akyuz,  which demonstrated increased hypothenar loop pattern and more distally placed axial tri radius in person with dental caries.
| Conclusion|| |
Studies in different parts of the world on prevention of dental caries have yielded variety of results. No investigators have yet conducted a study on a relation based on dermatoglyphic patterns and dental caries in children of West Bengal. Hence, the study will provide the data on dermatoglyphic pattern variations and its relation to dental caries in an individual.
The percentage of different patterns on fingers and number of tri radii in fingers and the percentage of patterns on all palmar areas, total number of triradii on palm and main line index also showed significant differences between caries and control group, but the direction of difference is reversed in male and female children, making the result inconclusive. This result suggests that more systematic larger samples consisting of different genetic population are required to verify the conclusion.
Dermatoglyphic pattern variation may be an important tool in identification of people at risk of developing dental caries, which will enable an early detection and prevention of the disease.
| References|| |
|1.||Mukherjee DP. How Scientists read palms. Sci Today 1980:15-21. |
|2.||Cummins H, Midlo C. Fingerprints palms and soles-an introduction to dermatoglyphics. New York: The Blakistan Co. Inc; 1961. |
|3.||Penrose LS. Fingerprints, palms and chromosomes. 1963;197:933-8. |
|4.||Sharma VP, Gupta DS, Kharbanda OP. Dermatoglyphic evaluation of retrognathism. J Indian Dent Assoc 1980;52:111-4. |
|5.||Kharbanda OP, Sharma V, Gupta DS. Dermatoglyphic evaluation of mandibular prognathism. J Indian Dent Assoc 1982;54:179-86. |
|6.||Adams MS, Niswander JD. Developmental noise and a congenital malformation. Genet Res 1967;10:313-7. |
|7.||Atasu M. Dermatoglyphic findings in dental caries: A preliminary report. J Clin Pediatric Dent 1998;22:147-9. |
|8.||Trehan M, Kapoor DN, Tandon P, Sharma VP. Dermatoglyphic study of normal occlusion and malocclusion. J ind orthod soc 2000;33:11-6. |
|9.||Prescott SR. Orofacial genetics. New York: CV Cosby Company; 1976. |
|10.||Hirsch W, Schweichel JU. Morphological evidence concerning the problem of skin ridge formation. J Ment defic research 1973;17:58-72. |
|11.||Loesch DZ. Quantitative dermatoglyphics, clasiification, genetics and pathology, oxford monographs on medical genetics. Oxford University Press: 1983. |
|12.||Akyuz S. Hemifacial microsomia. Oral, clinical, genetic and dermatoglyphic findings. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1998;23:63-8. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]