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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 304-310
 

Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material and radioopaque posterior glass ionomer restorative cement in primary and permanent teeth: An in vitro study


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication17-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Vignesh Guptha Raju
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 2/102, East Coast Road, Uthandi, Chennai - 600 119, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.140952

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   Abstract 

Background: Restoration of carious primary molars is still a major concern while treating the young children that too in deep carious lesion which extends below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) where pulp protection and achieving adequate marginal seal are very important to prevent secondary caries. The needs were met with the development of new materials. One such of new bioactive material is tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine), recommended for restoring deep lesions. Aim: To evaluate and compare shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) in primary and permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surface of crowns were ground flat. PVC molds were stabilized over flat dentin surface and filled with tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine)/glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) according to group ascertained. Shear bond strength was evaluated using universal testing machine (INSTRON). Standardized Class II cavities were prepared on both primary and permanent teeth, and then restored with tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine)/glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) according to group ascertained, over which composite resin material was restored using an open sandwich technique. Microleakage was assessed using dye penetration. Microleakage was examined using a stereomicroscope. Results: Results showed that glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) exhibited better shear bond strength than tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine). Mean microleakage score for glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) in permanent teeth was 1.52 and for primary teeth was 1.56. The mean microleakage for tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) in permanent teeth was 0.76 and for primary teeth was 0.60. Glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) exhibited more microleakage than tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine), which was statistically significant both in permanent (P = 0.02) and primary (P = 0.006) teeth. Conclusion: Shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) is greater than tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) in both primary and permanent teeth. Tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) exhibited less microleakage compared to glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) in both primary and permanent molars.


Keywords: Biodentine, glass ionomer cements, microleakage, shear bond strength


How to cite this article:
Raju VG, Venumbaka NR, Mungara J, Vijayakumar P, Rajendran S, Elangovan A. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material and radioopaque posterior glass ionomer restorative cement in primary and permanent teeth: An in vitro study . J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32:304-10

How to cite this URL:
Raju VG, Venumbaka NR, Mungara J, Vijayakumar P, Rajendran S, Elangovan A. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material and radioopaque posterior glass ionomer restorative cement in primary and permanent teeth: An in vitro study . J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 21];32:304-10. Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2014/32/4/304/140952



   Introduction Top


The old and traditional methods of cavity preparation were material driven and tooth destructive. Based on the possibilities of adherence of material to tooth structure a new cavity preparation philosophy emerged. Cavity size and shape is strictly defect oriented and minimally invasive. This has been made possible with the advancements in material science and availability of newer materials along with modifications of the previously existing ones. [1] Restoration of carious primary molar is still a major concern while treating the young children particularly in class II restorations where gingival margins extend below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) onto dentin. [2],[3]

It is important to have good marginal seal and better bond strength for the longevity of restorative material, thereby reducing the marginal leakage which is the precursor of secondary caries, staining of restoration, tooth discoloration, marginal deterioration, post-operative sensitivity and pulpal pathology. [4] Several factors contribute to the high incidence of recurrent caries in the gingival area. These include improper restorative technique by the clinician, plaque accumulation due to patient difficulty in cleaning and lack of patient compliance with proper oral hygiene. [3] It is therefore critical to achieve a seal on the gingival margin of class II sandwich restorations.

Glass ionomer cements have undergone tremendous improvement potential and have been able to overcome most of the disadvantages of other restorative materials for children, as it possess high strength, wear resistance, a chemical adhesion to tooth structure, fluoride release and radio opacity. In addition, it is claimed to be less technique sensitive to saliva and highly durable with improved physical properties. But sometimes deep carious lesions which extend below CEJ where moisture and blood contamination control is difficult will require a material with pulp healing potentiality.

A new tricalcium silicate-based bioactive restorative cement named Biodentine was tried; it is a two-component material. The powder part includes tricalcium silicate (80%), zirconium oxide, calcium carbonate and oxide. Liquid part is an aqueous solution containing calcium chloride which accelerates the system and partially modified polycarboxylate as a super plasticizing agent to reduce the water content, which decreases the setting time to harden within 9 to 12 minutes. Mechanical properties and setting time of MTA (2.75 hours) is not compatible with clinical use as a restorative material, whereas biodentine which is claimed to possess mechanical properties sufficient to withstand occlusal load when protected with composite resin material. It is suggested as a good option as a dentin substitute in sandwich restoration, where the quality of interface with dentin is a contributing factor for microleakage. This material does not require photo activation and can be placed in bulk in the cavity directly without requiring any specific conditioning of the dentin surface. Its setting time is short enough to complete the whole procedure in a single appointment. This material exhibits the same excellent biological properties as that of MTA and can be placed in direct contact with dental pulp. Thus, Biodentine is both a dentin substitute base and cement for maintaining pulp vitality and stimulating hard tissue formation, (i.e.) formation of both reactive and reparative dentin. [5]

The clinical success of the newer restorative materials depends on a good adhesion with the dentinal surface to resist various dislodging forces acting on them. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the microleakage and shear bond strength of recently available tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) and to compare it with the previously existing glass ionomer-based restorative material (Fuji IX GP) on primary and permanent teeth.


   Materials and Methods Top


This study was conducted in Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, in collaboration with Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET) Guindy Chennai.

In the present study, 70 primary and seventy permanent extracted non-carious human molar teeth were collected and surface debridement was done with ultrasonic scalers and they were stored in distilled water at room temperature till the experimental period. Fifty primary and permanent molar teeth - used for microleakage testing; 20 Primary and permanent molar teeth - for testing shear bond strength [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Shows the study groups

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Twenty extracted non-carious primary molar teeth and 20 of the extracted non-carious permanent molar teeth were selected, cleaned of debris and stored in distilled water until preparation. Specimens were randomly divided into groups [Figure 2]. Horizontal indentitions were placed on radicular portion. The root portion of each tooth was embedded into an acrylic mold with the occlusal surface of tooth parallel to the base. Molds were then filled with cold cure acrylic resin (DPI-RR cold cure) leaving the crown portion of tooth exposed.
Figure 2: Specimens were randomly divided into four groups for shear bond strength testing

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The mid-coronal dentin of the occlusal surfaces was exposed by a flat cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth with a fine diamond disc in high speed with a copious water spray. Subsequently, 400 grit aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) abrasive paper was used to obtain a flat dentin surface. [6] Specimens were then stored in distilled water.

For preparation of the samples for shear bond strength testing using glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX GP (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), specimens were rinsed with tap water for 10 seconds and dried with air spray, dentinal surface was then conditioned with 10% polyacrylic acid (GC Dentin Conditioner - GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for 15 seconds by active application using a microbrush. The dentin was rinsed with water for 10 seconds and air dried. Powder and liquid were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions; polyvinyl mold of 3.5 mm diameter by 3 mm high was positioned perpendicular to dentinal surface [6] and the mixed glass ionomer cement was condensed into these molds. After setting of cement, the mold was removed after 10 minutes and Vaseline applied.

For the Biodentine group teeth prepared for testing shear bond strength were taken out from distilled water, and dried. The polyvinyl mold (3.5 mm diameter and 3 mm height) was placed over flattened dentinal surface. Biodentine capsule was manipulated with the help of amalgamator and the mix was condensed into the mold with the help of amalgam carrier and plastic filling instrument. Molds were removed after (15 minutes) confirming the initial set of the cement [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Sample for shear bond strength testing restored with the help of cylindrical polyvinyl mold

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Shear bond strength assessment was done using Universal Testing Machine (Instron® 3382 100 kN). Each sample was mounted in universal testing machine with the dentin surface parallel to the machine›s trajectory. A compressive load was applied, using a steel knife-edge placed over the sample's tooth-restoration interface so that the force of the shear was applied directly to the bond interface [Figure 4]. Load was applied such that crosshead moving at speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Load was applied until restoration failure occurred and values were recorded. [6],[7],[8] Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using the t test.
Figure 4: Shear bond strength testing using universal testing machine

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Methodology for microleakage

Fifty extracted non-carious primary molar teeth and 50 extracted non-carious permanent molar teeth were selected (four groups of 25 each).

Cavity preparation

A standardized Class II cavity preparation was made involving the proximal and occlusal surfaces using No.245 tungsten carbide bur in a high-speed airotor handpiece with water spray. All internal line angles were rounded. The overall dimensions and depths of cavities were standardized (occlusal floor, width 4 mm, length 5 mm; axial wall, width 4 mm, height 3 mm; gingival floor, width 4 mm, depth 2.5 mm. The proximal boxes ended in dentin, just below the CEJ. [9] The teeth were randomly divided into four groups [Figure 5].
Figure 5: Specimens were randomly divided into four groups for microleakage testing

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Restorative procedure

Tricalcium silicate restorative material (Biodentine) group

0To restore the prepared cavities with Biodentine in cervical wall to the thickness of 3 mm using the open sandwich technique, one capsule of Biodentine was opened and liquid was dispensed into the capsule and capsule was placed inside the amalgamator and mixed for 30 seconds, then the mix was carried using amalgam carrier and condensed against cavity wall [Figure 6]. Excess material was removed within 12 minutes after which the cement sets hard. The cavity was totally etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds and thoroughly rinsed. [9] Bonding agent Adper single bond plus (3MESPE) was applied using applicator tip and air was blown gently and cured for 20 seconds. Then composite restoration was done using incremental technique and light cured. [10]
Figure 6: Class II cavity preparation with restoration at cervical margin

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Radioopaque posterior glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) group

To restore the prepared cavities with Fuji IX GP using the open sandwich technique, dentinal surface were conditioned with 10% polyacrylic acid (GC Dentin Conditioner - GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for 15 seconds by active application using a microbrush. The dentin was rinsed with water for 10 seconds and air dried by blowing with a three way syringe. Fuji IX GP was manipulated according to manufacturer's instruction and placed in cervical wall to the thickness of 3mm using plastic filling instrument and condensed, cervical matrix was placed and finger pressure was applied, which was removed once Fuji IX GP cement sets. The cavity walls were etched for 15 seconds using 37% phosphoric acid gel, then water was sprayed and air dried. Bonding agent Adper single bond plus (3M ESPE) was applied using applicator tip and air blown gently, and cured for 20 seconds. Then composite restoration was done using incremental technique and light cured. [10]

Finishing and polishing

All teeth were finished to contour with composite finishing bur 7901 and polished using soflex discs in a low-speed contra angle micromotor handpiece. All specimens were subjected to 1000 thermo cycles. Each cycle consisted of 30 seconds at 6°C ± 2°C and 30 seconds at 60°C ± 2°C. [1],[11] Teeth were then impermeabilized using sticky wax [Figure 7]. One coat of nail varnish was applied on the entire tooth except 1 mm from the restoration margin. Teeth were then placed in 5 % methylene blue dye for 12 hours at room temperature [Figure 8]. [11] After removal of the specimens from the dye solution, the superficial dye was removed with a pumice slurry and rubber cup. [3] The specimens were then sectioned longitudinally with double-sided diamond discs and two sections were obtained. Extent of dye penetration was studied under stereomicroscope at 40× magnification. The part of the sectioned tooth which showed greater amount of microleakage was scored. [4],[5]

Microleakage was scored using following criteria: [1]
Figure 7: Samples after nail varnish application and apex impermiabilization

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Figure 8: Immersion of study samples in 5 % methylene blue dye

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  1. No dye penetration.
  2. Partial dye penetration.
  3. Dye penetration along the gingival wall, but not including axial wall.
  4. Dye penetration to and along the axial wall.



   Results Top


Shear bond strength

Ten samples from each group were tested for shear bond strength and the values were recorded. Mean shear bond strength was calculated from the recorded values and statistical analysis was done with the "t" test. [Table 1] shows Mean ± S.D shear bond strength of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP of the study groups. Mean ± S.D shear bond strength was found to be higher in Group III and Group IV followed by Group I and Group II. [Table 2] hows comparison of mean shear bond strength of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP of the study groups. On comparison, Biodentine showed better shear bond strength to permanent dentin than primary dentin which was not statistically significant (P = 0.199). Fuji IX GP showed better shear bond strength to permanent dentin compared to primary dentin which was not statistically significant (P = 0.503). On comparing between the cements, glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) showed greater shear bond strength than tricalcium silicate-based restorative cement (Biodentine) to both permanent (P = 0.008) and primary dentin (P = 0.004) which was statistically significant.
Table 1: Mean shear bond strength ± S.D of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP of the study groups

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Table 2: Comparison of mean shear bond strength of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP of the study groups

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Microleakage

Twenty-five teeth from each group were evaluated for microleakage using stereomicroscope and results were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. [Figure 9] shows the microleakage scores of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP in primary and permanent teeth. Group II shows no dye penetration in maximum number of samples (15), whereas Groups III and IV show dye penetration to and along the axial wall in six samples. [Table 3] shows mean ± S.D microleakage score of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP of the study groups. Least mean microleakage score was seen in Group II (0.60 ± 0.87) and Group IV shows maximum mean microleakage score (1.56 ± 1.04).
Table 3: Mean microleakage and standard deviations of the study samples

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Figure 9: Shows the microleakage scores of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP of the study groups

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Result showed that glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) had greater shear bond strength compared to tricalcium silicate-based restorative cement (Biodentine) in both primary and permanent teeth while tricalcium silicate-based restorative cement (Biodentine) showed good marginal integrity and less microleakage at the junctional interface between material and dentin, both in primary and permanent teeth compared to glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP).


   Discussion Top


Restorative procedures in subgingival cavities in primary and permanent teeth should possess a good marginal seal, high bond strength and should be less technique sensitive. Most of these were accomplished with the advent of the glass ionomer restoration. [1] Though glass ionomer forms a chemical bond with the tooth structure in addition to the mechanical bond, its ability to release fluorides and prevent recurrent caries; its limitations prevent its use in cavities with bleeding or in other clinical conditions where proper isolation cannot be achieved. Oral fluids such as saliva can cause chemical incompatibility with dental materials. [2] Pashley et al. [12] reported that blood or salivary contamination promotes physical obstacles by deposition of macromolecules of these contaminants in to the dentinal tubules. Bendeli et al. [13] stated that saliva contamination might be a risk factor to the bonding process. This is of particular clinical significance in pediatric practice as excessive salivation is observed in children and often due to un-cooperativeness of the patient, it might be difficult to use rubber dam routinely in clinical practice. [2] Moisture and contaminants not only influence the bond strength of glass ionomer to tooth structure, but negatively influence the physico-mechanical properties of the material as well. [14]

The research focus on a biological tool to repair or regenerate dental tissues led to the advent of a new calcium-based silicate (Ca 3 SiO 5 ) cement - the Biodentine with improved properties such as fast setting time, improved mechanical and chemical properties, less technique sensitive and better healing potential. None of the presently available restorative materials provides a perfect seal with cavity walls and there is always a microspace at the interface between the two along which fluids and microorganism can penetrate. [1] Several authors assume that gap size is positively correlated to microleakage values and attempts have been made to correlate bond strength values with marginal gap size (Munksgaard et al, 1985). Hence, experiments are needed to determine microleakage and bond strength and to compare them using the same materials. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the microleakage and shear bond strength of Biodentine and Fuji IX GP in both primary and permanent teeth.

The shear bond strength was assessed in a custom apparatus attached to a universal testing machine (Instron® 3382 100 kN). [13] The result shows that mean shear bond strength of Biodentine on permanent teeth was 3.441 MPa. Similar values were observed in a study done by Boinon et al.,[15] (3.04 MPa) and mean shear bond strength of Biodentine on primary teeth was 2.485 MPa. The present study showed that shear bond strength of Fuji IX GP was 6.414 MPa ± 2.449 in permanent teeth and 5.618 MPa ± 2.752 in primary teeth. Similar findings were observed in other studies by Kotumachagi, Carvalho, and Manuja. [2],[7],[8]

In the present study Fuji IX GP showed better bond strength compared to Biodentine both in primary and permanent teeth which was statistically significant whereas no significant differences were seen in Biodentine and Fuji IX GP in primary versus permanent teeth. Increased shear bond strength value in Fuji IX GP may be due to the fact that in addition to a chemical interaction between the cement and dentin surface, Fuji IX GP may provide micromechanical interlocking via the formation of hybrid layers and resin tags between highly viscous glass ionomer cement and conditioned dentin surface. [2]

Microleakage was evaluated by dye penetration (Methylene blue) method which is one of the most commonly used ways to assess in vitro the inter facial seal by measuring the percolation of a dye along different interfaces studied. [11] Results obtained in this study show that Biodentine exhibited least microleakage in both permanent (Group I) and primary teeth (Group II). This suggests superior adhesion of Biodentine. This correlates with the findings of Koubi, Goldberg and Gilles. [9],[16],[17] Fuji IX GP exhibited higher microleakage than Biodentine when used as a dentin substitute in open sandwich restorations on human molars, which was statistically significant, both in permanent and primary teeth [Table 4]. The good marginal integrity of open-sandwich restoration filled with Biodentine is likely due to the outstanding ability of the calcium silicate materials to form hydroxyapatite crystals at the surface. When formed at the interface between the restorative material and the dentin walls, these crystals may contribute to the sealing efficiency of the material. In addition to the formation of apatite crystals the nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate may also explain the good sealing qualities of the calcium silicate cement. [9]
Table 4: Comparison of mean microleakage of the study samples

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Studies on the ultrastructure of the Biodentine - dentine interface following phosphate-buffered saline immersion (PBS) have demonstrated the formation of a "mineral tag" studies by Han and Okiji [18] also confirmed the formation of tag-like structures alongside an interfacial layer called as "mineral infiltration zone" by intertubular diffusion of carbonate from calcium silicate cement into the dentin, following the denaturing effect of the strongly alkaline cement. The comparison of interfaces showed a dentin-mineral infiltration with the Biodentine, whereas polyacrylic and tartaric acids and their salts characterize GIC penetration. [19]


   Conclusion Top


Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that Fuji IX GP had greater shear bond strength compared to Biodentine in both primary and permanent teeth and Biodentine showed good marginal integrity and less microleakage at the junctional interface between material and dentin both in primary and permanent teeth compared to Fuji IX GP. Future studies should aim at mimicking the oral environment with increased sample size to recommend Biodentine as a dentin substitute under a composite restoration for posterior teeth restoration.

 
   References Top

1.Rekha CV, Varma B, Jayanthi. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength and microleakage of conventional glass ionomer cement, resin modified glass ionomer cement and compomer: An in vitro study. Contemp Clin Dent 2012;3:282-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Kotumachagi S, Nagarathna SJ. Evaluation of shear bond strengths of fuji ii and fuji ix with and without salivary contamination on deciduous molars-an invitro study. Archives of oral sciences and research 2011;1:139-45.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Singla T, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. An evaluation of microleakage of various glass ionomer based restorative materials in deciduous and permanent teeth: An in vitro study. Saudi Dent J 2012;24:35-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Masih S, Thomas AM, Koshy G, Joshi JL. Comparative evaluation of the microleakage of two modified glass ionomer cements on primary molars. an in vivo study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2011;29:135-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Dammaschke T, Leidinger J, Schäfer E. Long-term evaluation of direct pulp capping-treatment outcomes over an average period of 6.1 years. Clin Oral Investig 2010;14:559-67.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Mauro SJ, Sundfeld RH, Bedran-Russo AK, FragaBriso AL. Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer to dentin: The effect of dentin surface treatment. J Minim Interv Dent 2009;2:45-53.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Carvalho TS, van Amerongen WE, de Gee A, Bonecker M, Sampaio FC. Shear bond strengths of three glass ionomer cements to enamel and dentine. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16:406-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Manuja N, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Nagpal R. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of various esthetic restorative materials to dentin - An invitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2011;29:7-13.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Koubi S, Elmerini H, Koubi G, Tassery H, Camps J. Quantitative evaluation by glucose diffusion of microleakage in aged calcium silicate-based open-sandwich restorations. Int J Dent 2012;2012:1058-63.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Nadig RR, Bugalia A, Usha G, Karthik J, Rao R, Vedhavathi B. Effect of four different placement techniques on marginal microleakage in class II composite restorations an in vitro study. World J Dent 2011;2:111-6.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Gonzalez NA, Kasim NH, Aziz RD. Microleakage Testing. Ann Dent Univ Malaya 1997;4:31-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Pashley DH, Nelson R, Kepler EF. The effect of plasma and salivary contamination on the dentin permeability. J Dent Res 1982;61:978-81.   Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Benderli Y, Gökçe K, Büyükgökçesu S. In vitro shear bond strength of adhesive to normal and fluoridated enamel under various contaminated conditions. Quint Int 1999;30:570-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Fabianelli A, Sgarra A, Goracci C, Cantoro A, Pollington S, Ferrari M. Microleakage in Class II Restorations Open vs Closed Centripetal Build-up Technique. Oper Dent 2010;35:308-13.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Boinon C, Bottero-Cornillac MJ, Koubi G, Dejou J. Evaluation of adhesion between composite resins and an experimental mineral restorative material. Euro Cell Mater 2007;1:17.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Goldberg M, Pradell-Plasse N, Tran XV, Colon P, Emerging trends in (bio) material researches. In: Goldberg M, edior. Biocompatibility or cytotoxic effects of dental composites. Oxford, UK: Coxmoor Publishing; 2009. p. 181-203.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Koubi G, Colon P, Franquin JC, Hartmann A, Richard G, Faure MO, et al. Clinical evaluation of the performance and safety of a new dentine substitute, Biodentine, in the restoration of posterior teeth - a prospective study. Clin Oral Invest 2013;17:243-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Han L, Okiji T. Uptake of calcium and silicon released from calcium silicate-based endodontic materials into root canal dentine. Int Endod J 2011;44:1081-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Atmeh AR, Chong EZ, Richard G, Festy F, Watson TF. Dentin-cement Interfacial Interaction: Calcium Silicates and Polyalkenoates. J Dent Res 2012;91:454-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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