Year : 2005 | Volume
: 23 | Issue : 1 | Page : 17--22
Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study
P Mahesh Kumar, T Joseph, RB Varma, M Jayanthi
Ragas Dental College and Hospital, East Coast Road, Uthandi, Chennai - 600 119, India
R B Varma
Ragas Dental College and Hospital, East Coast Road, Uthandi, Chennai - 600 119
India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children) in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The survey is based on WHO, 1999 Oral Health Assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities/ hypoplasia for 5 years. Evaluation of the oral health status of these children revealed, dental caries is the most prevalent disease affecting permanent teeth, more than primary teeth and more in corporation than in private schools, thereby, correlating with the socioeconomic status. It may be concluded that the greatest need of dental health education is at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for life time.
|How to cite this article:|
Mahesh Kumar P, Joseph T, Varma R B, Jayanthi M. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study.J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:17-22
|How to cite this URL:|
Mahesh Kumar P, Joseph T, Varma R B, Jayanthi M. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city - An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2005 [cited 2019 Dec 12 ];23:17-22
Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2005/23/1/17/16021
Dental Caries is the most prevalent dental affliction of childhood. Despite credible scientific advances and the fact that caries is preventable, the disease continues to be a major public health problem. In developing countries changing life-styles and dietary patterns are markedly increasing the caries incidence.
This epidemiological study was planned as very few studies have been conducted in Chennai city. This study was undertaken with the following aims and objectives:
To assess the dental caries, oral hygiene, enamel opacities and malocclusion in children of corporation and private schools.
To correlate socio-economic status with oral hygiene practices, and OHIS, caries and malocclusion.
To assess treatment needs and suggest any possible remedial measures for planning of oral health programs.
Materials and Methods
The study was carried out to assess oral health status of 5 and 12 years old school going children of Chennai city.
Study population consisted of thirty schools which had been selected randomly in Chennai city which included fifteen corporation schools and fifteen private schools.
40 children in each school were examined. Out of 40, 20 were 5 years old and 20 were 12 years old. The total number of children examined were 1200. 600 each in 5 and 12 years age group.
The annual income of parents was recorded from school register and it was grouped as I to V, according to modified proposed classification by Sogi and Basker 1997 and from this classification we have modified Group I as high income group. Group II and III middle income group. Group IV and V as low income group.
The survey was based on WHO oral health assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities / hypoplasia for 5 years. The survey was carried out between the months of December 2002 and February 2003.
A total number of 1200 school going children in the age group of 5 years and 12 years of Chennai city were studied.
Among the 5 year age group examined, 53.8% were boys and 46.2% were girls [Table 1]. In the 12 years age group 52.8% were boys and 47.2% were girls.
Children studying in the corporation schools were generally from the low income groups like daily wage earners, labourers, and coolies. While children in private school were from high-income groups [Table 2]. There is statistically significant difference in the economic status between corporation and private school children (P<0.001).
[Table 3] shows the gingival assessment using Green and Vermillion index modified for 5 years age group. Above 80% were having good oral hygiene and 20% were with poor oral hygiene. Boys exhibited poor oral hygiene as compared to girls, which was statistically significant, (P=0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between Corporation and Private School (P=0.44). This could be attributed to their healthy oral hygiene practices irrespective of the socio economic status.
[Table 4] shows the gingival and periodontal assessment using CPI for 12 years age group. The boys were affected more than girls showing statistical significance (P=0.008). It was also observed that higher percentage of corporation school children had gingival and periodontal problems than private school children. It was seen that oral hygiene score showed increase with age and boys were affected more. This observation is in contradiction with findings of Saha and Sarkar 1996. The reason could be that the present study was carried out in mixed dentition period, and due to varied food habits, shedding of primary teeth, improper and unsupervised oral hygiene practices and pubertal changes in girls.
[Table 5] shows the Dental caries assessment of 5 and 12 years. In 5 years boys dmft was 3.53±3.07, girls was 3.49±2.83. In 12 years the DMFT for boys was 3.80±3.43, girls 4.11±2.98. There was no statistically significant difference between dmft / DMFT of boys and girls in both age groups. It was observed that caries prevalence of 12 years age group was higher as compared to the 5 years age group in both sexes. Similar findings were seen in a study conducted by Retnakumari in 1999. She reported the high level of caries experience in permanent dentition at the age of 12 years.
[Table 6] shows prevalence of malocclusion in 12 years age group, taken according to the WHO criteria 1997. It was observed that Diastema, Maxillary and Mandibular overjet and antero posterior relationship showed a statistical significance. The other criteria of malocclusion like crowding, spacing, maxillary and mandibular irregularity and open bite did not show any statistical significance. The overall prevalence of malocclusion in both private and corporation school showed mild to moderate degree of malocclusion.
[Table 7] shows prevalence of enamel opacities in 5 years and 12 years. In 5 years it was 28.3% and 12 years 23.3%. Mean value was 0.5±1.35 for 5 years and 0.7±1.3 for 12 years. This observation showed statistical significant difference in 5 years, between boys and girls (P=0.02) and schools (P=0.04). There was no statistically significant difference between age groups and schools for 12 years. The reason for this could be attributed to the fact that enamel hypoplasia and opacities occur as result of disruption in enamel development. Environmental and genetic factors could be a contributory factor. Other factors could be the malnourishment, trauma and lack of prenatal care due to lack of awareness and low literacy level.
[Table 8] shows the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 5 and 12 year group. 2.5% of 12 year group and 1% in the 5 year group showed dental fluorosis. From this survey it was noted that dental fluorosis was not significant among the 5 years and 12 years age group. This can be attributed to the fact that Chennai city does not belong to the endemic zone of fluorosis.
[Table 9] shows the relationship between OHI-S and oral hygiene practices of 5 years. The table depicts the corporation school girls showed more gingival bleeding (using finger) as compared to those using tooth brush which was a statistically significant (P=0.04). The corporation school boys using tooth powder and charcoal showed the higher gingival bleeding than tooth paste users. This observation showed statistical significance (P=0.03). When frequency of brushing habits in private school boys and girls was taken, it was seen that those children who brush once daily had more calculus as compared to those children brushing twice a day. This observation shows statistically significant between boys (P=0.03), and girls (P<0.001).
[Table 10] shows the relation between CPI and oral hygiene practice of 12 years. In private school boys using finger showed more gingival bleeding as compared to those using toothbrush. This observation shows a statistical significance (P=0.0007). Private schools, boys using tooth powder showed higher gingival bleeding than toothpaste users. This observation showed statistically significant difference (P=0.0001). When frequency of brushing habits in private school boys and girls was noted, it was concluded that those children who brushed once daily had more calculus as compared to those brushing two times a day. This observation was statistically significant (Boys P=0.007, Girls P=0.05). In corporation school, neither boys nor girls showed any statistically significant difference.
[Table 11] shows percentage of teeth needing treatment for dental caries in 5 years. In Corporation act of school 3200 teeth examined in boys; 591 (18.46%) teeth required treatment. Out of 591, 422 (13.18%) required one surface restoration, 58 (1.9%) required two surface restorations, 81 (2.53%) required pulp treatment, 17 (0.53%) required extraction and 13 (0.40%) required other care. In girls 2800 teeth were examined out of which 526 (18.78%) required treatment. Out of 526, 371 (13.25%) required one surface restoration, 55 (1.96%) required two surface restoration, 63 (2.25%) required pulp restoration, 21 (0.75%) required extraction and 8 (0.25%) required other care.
In private school, children out of 3260 teeth examined in boys. 212 (6.5%) required treatment. Out of 212, 159 (4.87%) required one surface restoration, 4 (0.12%) required two surface restoration, 45 (1.38%) required pulp restoration, 4 (0.12%) required extraction. In girls, 2740 teeth were examined out of which 297 (10.83%) required treatment. 259 (9.45%) required one surface restoration, 1 (0.036%) required two surface restoration, 35 (1.27%) required pulp restoration, 2 (0.07%) required other care.
[Table 12] shows percentage of teeth needing treatment in 12 years old. In corporation school out of 3839 teeth examined in boys, 676 (17.60%) required treatment. 631 (16.43%) one surface restoration, 7 (0.18%) required two surface restorations required, 14 (0.36%) required pulp restoration, 14 (0.36%) required extraction and 10 (0.26%) required other care. In girls out of 3733 teeth examined. 667 (17.86%) teeth required treatment. Out of 667, 628 (16.82%) required one surface restoration, 4 (0.10%) required two surface restorations, 14 (0.3s 7%) required pulp restoration, 10 (0.26%) required extraction and 11 (0.29%) required other care.
In private school, out of 4184 teeth examined in boys. 626 (14.96%) teeth required treatment. Out of 626, 603 (14.41%) required one surface restoration, 4 (0.09%) required two surface restoration, 19 (0.45%) required pulp restoration. In girls, 3524 teeth were examined. 549 (15.57%) teeth required treatment. Out of 549, 535 (15.18%) required one surface restoration, 5 (0.14%) required two surface restoration, 7 (0.19%) required pulp restoration, 1 (0.02%) required extraction and 1 (0.02%) required other care.
By assessing the treatment needs for Dental disease, among 5 years and 12 years the greatest need was for one surface restorations followed by two surface restorations, pulp restorations, extractions and other care.
Caries is the most prevalent dental disease both in the primary and the permanent dentition. In this study it was concluded that caries rate is high in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and more in children studying in Corporation schools than in Private schools. The reason could be due to fact that permanent teeth are exposed to cariogenic diet from the time of eruption till the teeth are in situ.
Five year old boys and girls showed good oral hygiene than 12 years old. In twelve year olds gingival bleeding was noticed in both sexes. This could be due to the mixed dentition period, shedding of primary teeth, ineffective maintenance of oral hygiene and pubertal changes in girls.
A few cases of enamel opacities and enamel hypoplasias have been detected in five and twelve year groups. The reason for this, could be attributed to disruption in enamel development. A few cases of fluorosis have been reported as questionable which was not significant among five and twelve years.
The prevalence of malocclusion was high in both groups. When dental caries was correlated with malocclusion it was noted that private school children had more caries.
The correlation between modified Green and Vermillion OHIS score with dental caries for five years showed that boys had a high OHI with increased caries rate when compared to girls.
The correlation of CPI versus dental caries for twelve years revealed that girls showed increased dental caries when compared to boys.
Correlating all the above findings with the SES, it was found that irrespective of the SES, oral hygiene was good amongst both private and corporation school children. With dental caries high amongst corporation school children.
By assessing the treatment needs for Dental disease, amongst 5 years and 12 years the greatest need was for one surface restorations followed by two surface restorations, pulp restorations, extractions and other care.
A study on oral health assessment and dental health education of children at an early age helps in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitudes, which is beneficial for a lifetime. This can be achieved by educating the uneducated parents about dental health through school dental health program. For the benefit of a community a dental health programmes have to be conducted repeatedly in order to reach the goals of WHO. Parents should be made aware of the brushing methods, and usage of pit and fissure sealants and importance of preventive measures for the children. The rationale of school dental health programme is to improve and motivate the parents and children regarding their dental health and treatment needs.
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