Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
                                                   Official journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry                           
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6--8

Oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old school going children in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study


UM Das, JP Beena, U Azher 
 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, V.S.Dental College and Hospital, K.R. Road, V.V. Puram, Bangalore-560 004, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
U M Das
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, K.R. Road, V.V. Puram, Bangalore-560 004, Karnataka
India

Abstract

Background: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. However, millions of individuals suffer from dental caries and periodontal disease, resulting in unnecessary pain, difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speaking, and increased medical costs; hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the oral health status of school children which would help us in planning and implementing necessary preventive measures. Aims and Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence of dental caries among school children, using the Dentition Status and Treatment Needs Index. 2. To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among the study population, using the WHO criteria. 3. To assess the prevalence of dental calculus among the study population using the criteria of Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at a school in Bangalore city. The study population comprised of school children of two age groups - 6 and 12 years. A total of 430 subjects of both the sexes were surveyed, out of which 229 were in 6-year age group and 201 in 12-year age group. Results: No significant difference was observed between the age groups - 6 and 12 years - with respect to the proportion of dental caries (P > 0.05). Highly significant difference was noticed between the two age groups with respect to calculus (P < 0.01) and malocclusion (P < 0.05).



How to cite this article:
Das U M, Beena J P, Azher U. Oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old school going children in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study.J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:6-8


How to cite this URL:
Das U M, Beena J P, Azher U. Oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old school going children in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Aug 21 ];27:6-8
Available from: http://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2009/27/1/6/50809


Full Text

 Introduction



Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. According to Horowitz and coworkers oral cavity is associated with the development of healthy personality, perceptions, and the overall experiences of pleasure. The ability to chew and swallow is a critical function required to obtain essential nutrients for the body - the building blocks of general health (American Dietetic Association 1986). However, millions of individuals suffer from dental caries and periodontal disease, resulting in unnecessary pain, difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speaking, and increased medical costs.

Untreated oral diseases in children frequently lead to serious general health problems, significant pain, interference with eating, and lost school time. [1]

One of the factors to be considered when planning for the required growth in dental care facilities is the prevalence of dental diseases and their treatment need in the population.

In the year 1997, 22.1% of Indian population was estimated to be 5-14 years. This being such a high proportion of the population, the prevalence of dental diseases among this age group needs to be assessed. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of three dental diseases - dental caries, malocclusion, and dental calculus among school children in Bangalore city.

Aims and objectives

To assess the prevalence of dental caries among the school children, using the Dentition Status and Treatment Needs Index. [2]

To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among the study population, using the WHO criteria. [2]

To assess the prevalence of dental calculus among the study population, using the criteria of Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs. [3]

 Materials and Methods



The present study was conducted at a school in Bangalore city. The study population comprised of school children of two age groups - 6 and 12 years. A total of 430 subjects of both the sexes were surveyed, out of which 229 were in 6-year age group and 201 in 12-year age group.

The investigators were standardized but not calibrated. A simplified basic oral health survey (WHO) [2] form was utilized to collect the data. Particulars regarding age and sex were recorded. Code 2 of CPITN was used to record the presence of calculus. The CPITN recordings in both the age groups were based on examination of teeth 16, 11, 26, 36, 31, and 46. When examining for dental caries, the deciduous dentition alone was considered for 6-year-old subjects while the permanent dentition alone was considered for 12-year olds. WHO criteria were used for recording malocclusion. All the intraoral examinations were made using mouth mirror, explorer, and natural illumination, after seating the subjects on a chair. The instruments were disinfected using antiseptic solution.

Visit to the schools was made on predecided dates and all the students present on that day were examined.

 Results



A total of 430 subjects, out of which 229 (121 males and 108 females) were 6-year olds while 201 (103 males and 98 females) were 12-year olds.

[Table 1] shows the distribution of study subjects according to age and sex. [Table 2] compares the proportion of caries in males and females in each age group using the Z -test for proportions. We noticed that there was no significant difference in the proportion of males and females having dental caries in the age groups of 6 and 12 years ( P > 0.05). [Table 3] presents the prevalence of malocclusion among study population and we observed that there was no significant difference in the proportion of males and females having malocclusion in age groups of 6 and 12 years ( P > 0.05). [Table 4] presents the prevalence of dental calculus among the study population (using the Z -test for proportion). There was no significant difference in the proportion of males and females having calculus in the age group of 12 years ( P > 0.05). [Table 5] presents data of prevalence of dental diseases among the two age groups (using the Z-test for proportion). No significant difference was observed between the two age groups - 6 and 12 years - with respect to the proportion of dental caries ( P > 0.05). Highly significant difference was noticed between two age groups with respect to calculus ( P > 0.05). Also, significant difference was noticed between the two age groups with respect to malocclusion ( P > 0.05).

 Discussion



One of the oral health goals advocated by WHO for year 2000 AD was that 50% of 5-6 year olds should be free from dental caries. [4] In the present study, it was observed that 57.20% of children in the 6-year age group were affected by dental caries indicating a relatively high prevalence of the disease in children.

The 12-13 year age group was chosen for the study as it is the global monitoring age for dental caries, for international comparisons, and monitoring of disease trends. In the present study, about 49.25% of children in this age group were affected.

The prevalence of malocclusion was found in all age groups, being significantly higher in the permanent dentition at 12 years of age compared to the deciduous dentition at 6 years of age. This increase of prevalence of malocclusion with age is in accordance with the observations of Graber and Lucker. [5]

Females had a higher prevalence of malocclusion as compared to males in 6-year age group; whereas, males had a higher prevalence in the 12-year age group. However, this difference was not statistically significant, which is in accordance with findings of Graber and Lucker [5] and Reddy. [6]

Dental calculus was found in 0.93% of females and 4.13% of males in 6-year old subjects and 7.14% of females and 9.71% of males in 12-year olds. Although 12-year old female subjects exhibited lower prevalence of calculus as compared to their male counterparts, this difference was not statistically significant. Rao [7] reported similar observations in his study of school children where girls had marginally better oral hygiene than boys.

 Conclusion



Good oral health is essential to improve individual overall health and well-being. We urge to take this information and use it for program planning and advocating for the health of children. It is only through working together that we can make excellent oral health a reality for these children.

 Acknowledgment



Dr. Gopu. H, Dr. Akshatha. B.S, Dr. Ambika. G, Post Graduate Students, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, and V.S. Dental College and Hospital.

References

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2Oral health surveys: Basic methods. 3 rd ed. Geneva: WHO; 1987.
3Ainamo J, Barmes D, Beagrie G, Cutress T, Martin J. Development of World Health Organization (WHO) Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Int Dent J 1982;32:281-91.
4Aggeryd T. Goals for oral health in the year 2000: Cooperation between WHO, FDI and the national dental associations. Int Dent J 1983;33:55-69.
5Graber LW, Lucker GW. Dental esthetic self evaluation and satisfaction. Am J Orthod 1980;77:163-73.
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