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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2010| July-September  | Volume 28 | Issue 3  
    Online since December 11, 2010

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Marsupialization: A conservative approach for treating dentigerous cyst in children in the mixed dentition
BC Kirtaniya, V Sachdev, A Singla, AK Sharma
July-September 2010, 28(3):203-208
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73795  PMID:21157055
Dentigerous cysts are usually encountered in the practice of pediatric dentistry. The treatment modalities range from marsupialization to enucleation of the lesion and are based on the involvement of the lesion with the adjacent structures. However, loss of a permanent tooth in the management of a dentigerous cyst can be devastating to a child who has already a congenitally missing tooth. The first case describes the technique of marsupialization in which we extracted the grossly carious deciduous 1st molar and created a window through the extracted socket to decompress the lesion. In this case the 2nd premolars were congenitally missing on both sides of the mandible for which we had not gone for enucleation of the dentigerous cyst along with the developing 1st premolar. The second case is a developmental type of a big dentigerous cyst where marsupialization was followed by enucleation of the cystic lining but without removal of the affected tooth. Both the teeth erupted in the oral cavity.
  11 22,560 1,078
Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study
PM Harini, RT Anegundi
July-September 2010, 28(3):179-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73799  PMID:21157050
Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009), Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively). Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.
  7 11,689 1,515
Comparative evaluation of the effects of an alum-containing mouthrinse and a saturated saline rinse on the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans
S Rupesh, JJ Winnier, UA Nayak, AP Rao, NV Reddy
July-September 2010, 28(3):138-144
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73780  PMID:21157043
Background: The literature is replete with studies establishing Streptococcus mutans as a major player in the formation of pit and fissure caries in all dentitions. Salivary bacterial levels in turn are related to the number of colonized surfaces. Therefore, decreasing the salivary levels of S. mutans would have a great benefit in decreasing the incidence of dental diseases. Aims: Keeping in mind the potential antimicrobial effects of saturated saline and alum solutions, the present study was attempted to compare and evaluate the effects of saturated saline rinse and 0.02 M alum mouthrinse on salivary S. mutans levels in children. Materials and Methods: The investigation was a double-blind, stratified comparison of three parallel groups of children who used either saturated saline rinse, 0.02 M alum mouthrinse or distilled water (placebo) rinse twice daily under professional supervision for a 21-day period. A total of three saliva samples were taken from each individual - at baseline, on the 10 th day and on the 21 st day, and colony counts of S. mutans were determined. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Sum and Mann-Whitney "U" test. Results and Conclusions: Children using saturated saline rinse and alum rinse showed statistically significant reductions in salivaryS. mutans counts after 10 days and also after 21 days. After 21 days, the saturated saline rinse and alum rinse groups showed statistically significant differences over the placebo rinse group. Again, the alum rinse group showed a statistically significant difference over the saturated saline rinse group.
  3 12,981 533
Biological approach for management of anterior tooth trauma: Triple case report
P Goenka, N Marwah, S Dutta
July-September 2010, 28(3):223-229
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73791  PMID:21157059
Anterior crown fractures are a common form of injury that mainly affect children and adolescents. The position of maxillary incisors and their eruptive pattern carries a significant risk for trauma. In the pre-adhesive era, fractured teeth needed to be restored either with pin-retained inlays or cast restorations that sacrificed healthy tooth structure and were a challenge for clinicians to match with adjacent teeth. The development of adhesive dentistry has allowed dentists to use the patient's own fragment to restore the fractured tooth. Three cases are presented here with complicated crown fracture of maxillary central incisors; the reattachment of the fractured tooth segment in this case has been performed using different combinations of techniques, viz. simple reattachment, circumferential bevel and internal dentinal groove.
  2 14,238 854
Flowable resin used as a sealant in molars using conventional, enameloplasty and fissurotomy techniques: An in vitro study
TR Chaitra, VV Subba Reddy, GM Devarasa, TL Ravishankar
July-September 2010, 28(3):145-150
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73786  PMID:21157044
Background and Objective: Preventive procedures using pit and fissure sealants are one of the most important aspects of pediatric dental practice. The objectives of this in vitro study were to comparatively evaluate microleakage of a flowable resin used as a sealant on molars after preparation with conventional, enameloplasty and fissurotomy techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 teeth were divided into three groups of eight samples each. Pits and fissures were prepared with conventional sealant technique (CST) (Group A), enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) (Group B) and fissurotomy technique (FT) (Group C). Following sealant placement, thermocycling and sectioning of samples of Groups A, B and C were performed and microleakage was assessed under a stereomicroscope after methylene blue dye immersion. Results: There was significantly lesser microleakage in EST when compared with CST and FT, which showed more microleakage. No statistical significance between CST and FT was found. Interpretation and Conclusion: EST has proven to be an excellent method of preparation of pits and fissures when flowable composite is used as a sealant because of its lesser microleakage.
  2 7,334 821
Reliability and factor analysis of children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale in Indian subjects
P Singh, RK Pandey, A Nagar, K Dutt
July-September 2010, 28(3):151-155
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73788  PMID:21157045
Context: Fear to visit a dentist is a common observation even in adults; however, among children it becomes one of the most important issues for a dentist. Psychographic analysis of the factors that add to fear level of the children can be accessed through Children fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS); however, its varied applicability in different environmental situations has been tested through this paper. Aims: The aim of present study is to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the Indian version of the CFSS-DS. Materials and Methods: The routine patients attending Outpatient Department of Pedodontics with Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Lucknow, India (n=197, aged 7-12 years old) were evaluated for children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale which was filled by parents on behalf of the child. Statistical Analysis: Reliability analysis (alpha) was performed to assess the internal consistency of the Indian translation of the scale. Factor analysis (principle components, varimax rotation) was employed to assess the factor structure. Results: Children fear survey scale-dental subscale was found to be equally reliable (Cronbach alpha = 0.92) and applicable among Indian subjects. However, factorization revealed emergence of 1) hospital, injections and hospital personnel, 2) drilling and interaction with unknown, 3) dental care personnel and practices. Conclusion: The present study extended the universal applicability of children fear survey schedule -dental subscale, while at the same time it was able to highlight different facets of problem in different environments.
  2 5,693 464
Evaluation of acidity and total sugar content of children's popular beverages and their effect on plaque pH
S Saeed, M Al-Tinawi
July-September 2010, 28(3):189-192
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73783  PMID:21157052
Background: In the developing countries, dental caries has increased with the increased exposure to dietary sugars. There is no data on the cariogenicity and acidogenicity of popular beverages in the Syrian market. Aims: To investigate the endogenous pH, titratable acidity, and total sugar content of popular beverages (cola, orange juice, and full-fat milk), and assess plaque pH drop after consumption. Settings and Design: Twenty-five healthy children with a mean age of 11.8 ± 0.6 years were recruited for this single blinded study. Materials and Methods: The pH of beverages was measured by a digital pH meter and the titratable acidity was expressed as the volume of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide required to neutralize the beverage. The total sugar content was estimated using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Children rinsed with 15 mL of each of the beverages for 1 min. The controls used were 10% sucrose and 10% sorbitol solutions. The plaque pH was assessed before and after rinsing. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni test to assess minimum pH, maximum pH drop, and the area under curve. P value was set as 0.05. Results: Both cola and orange juice had a low pH and similar total sugar content in contrast to the high pH and low sugar content of milk. Cola and orange juice were not statistically different from 10% sucrose (P > 0.05), but different from 10% sorbitol (P < 0.05), in contrast to milk, for all the parameters studied. Conclusion: Cola and orange juice are cariogenic/acidogenic and frequent intake should be discouraged. A reasonable intake of unsweetened milk may be advised safely.
  2 6,514 532
Oral pemphigus vulgaris in a pediatric patient
R Anand, JN Jaiswal, F Samadi
July-September 2010, 28(3):200-202
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73790  PMID:21157054
Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease that initially manifests in the form of intraoral lesions, which spread to other mucous membranes and the skin. The etiology of pemphigus vulgaris is still unknown, although the disease has attracted considerable interest. The pemphigus group of diseases is characterized by the production of autoantibody against intercellular substances and is thus classified as autoimmune diseases. A case of oral pemphigus vulgaris is presented with special emphasis on diagnostic modalities.
  1 3,915 124
Acanthomatous ameloblastoma of anterior maxilla
M Bansal, TP Chaturvedi, R Bansal, M Kumar
July-September 2010, 28(3):209-211
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73797  PMID:21157056
The unusual case of acanthomatous ameloblastoma occurring in maxillary left anterior region in a 13-year-old female child is presented with chief complaint of swelling in the upper left anterior region since one year and spacing between maxillary left central incisor and canine. Microscopic examination of surgically excised specimen revealed solid epithelial cell nests with peripheral palisading ameloblastic cells and the central squamous cell assemblage that was consistent with the findings of acanthomatous ameloblastoma type. Acanthomatous ameloblastoma is the extremely rare variant. The present report discusses issues related to the incidence of such formations in the target tissues.
  1 6,920 356
Congenital epulis: A rare benign tumor in the newborn
MB Diniz, MA Giro Elisa, CC Zuanon Angela, CA Costa, J Hebling
July-September 2010, 28(3):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73787  PMID:21157060
Congenital epulis (CE) of the newborn is a rare benign soft tissue tumor that presents at birth. It occurs usually as a single mass with various sizes, although some multiple lesions have also been reported. The lesion is more common in female neonates and normally affects the maxillary alveolar ridge. Rare recurrence and no malignant alteration have also been reported. This condition may interfere with respiration, feeding or adequate closure of the mouth. A decisive diagnosis is made by histopathologic analysis as other newborn lesions can be incorrectly diagnosed as CE. This article presents a case report of a female infant who presented a fibrotic mass in the primary lateral incisor and canine region of the maxillary alveolar ridge. The lesion was not causing feeding or respiratory problems. After a watchful waiting procedure and no spontaneous regression, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia and confirmed by histopathologic analysis as CE.
  1 14,030 373
Use of a modified anterior inclined plane in the treatment on the dentoskeletal Class II division 2 patient
SA Rao, AM Thomas, S Chopra
July-September 2010, 28(3):237-240
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73782  PMID:21157062
Class II malocclusions are seen due to the underdevelopment of the mandible in most of the cases. To compensate for the mandible retrusive position, there is flaring of the lower anterior teeth or retroclination of the central incisors as a compensatory mechanism seen in Class II division 2 type of malocclusion. This case report evaluates the skeletal and dental changes when a 12-year-old female patient with Class II div 2 malocclusion was treated with a modified anterior inclined plane. The postreatment data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The upper central incisors were significantly realigned by proclination along with retroclination of the lateral incisors. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that the modified anterior inclined plane showed good results in the treatment of a case of Class II div 2 malocclusion.
  1 12,467 683
Technique-sensitivity of dentin-bonding agent application: The effect on shear bond strength using one-step self-etch adhesive in primary molars: An in vitro study
S Bansal, IK Pandit, N Srivastava, N Gugnani
July-September 2010, 28(3):183-188
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73781  PMID:21157051
Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the effect of technique-sensitivity on shear bond strength (SBS) of one-step self-etch adhesive, using multiple coats and different applicator designs, to dentin in deciduous molars. Materials and Methods: Flat buccal dentinal surfaces were obtained on 60 extracted human primary molars. The specimens were divided into 3 equal groups (n = 20). Self-etch adhesive was applied on the dentinal surface of group I with cotton pellet, group II with microapplicator tip, and group III using 3M brush. The groups were further divided into 2 subgroups-single coat of dentin-bonding agent (DBA) in subgroups A and triple coat (with no curing in between coats) in subgroups B. The composite was placed on the dentinal surface using split nylon cylinder and cured. SBS was tested for all specimens with Instron Universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the main study groups, that is, no significant difference in the SBS with the use of different applicator tips. However, the use of triple coat of self-etch DBA exhibited highly significant difference in the SBS as compared with single coat. Conclusion: This study revealed that one-step self-etch adhesive could prove attractive in pediatric dentistry because of its lesser technique-sensitivity; however, increasing the number of coats of DBA (with no curing in between the layers) enhanced the bond strength to dentin owing to the improved resin infiltration.
  1 4,593 343
Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of different concentrations of chlorhexidine mouth rinses in reducing the mutants streptococci in saliva: An in vivo study
R Jayaprakash, A Sharma, J Moses
July-September 2010, 28(3):162-166
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73792  PMID:21157047
Background: Is low-concentration chlorhexidine effective against reducing the mutans streptococci (MS) in saliva? Aim: To compare the efficacy of different concentrations of chlorhexidine mouth rinses, i.e. 0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12%, in reducing the mutants streptococci count in saliva. Design: Forty subjects in the age group of 12-14 years were selected from the schools of Chennai and were equally divided into four groups. The first three were study groups and the fourth group was the control group. The subjects were instructed to rinse with a measured amount of mouth rinse for 1 min, twice-daily, for 1 week. Salivary samples were collected at baseline and 1 week after mouth rinsing with various concentrations and were cultured on MSB agar. The number of MS colonies was counted on agar medium under anaerobic conditions. Results: The results of the study confirmed that children using chlorhexidine of concentration 0.12% showed the maximum reduction in MS when compared with subjects using 0.02% and 0.06% concentrations. But, children using chlorhexidine of concentration 0.06% also showed significant reduction in MS when compared with the control group. Conclusion: From the above study, we conclude that chlorhexidine used in different concentrations (0.02%, 0.06%, 0.12%) efficiently reduced the mutans count.
  1 5,399 528
Dentin comparison in primary and permanent molars under transmitted and polarised light microscopy: An in vitro study
N Chowdhary, VV Subba Reddy
July-September 2010, 28(3):167-172
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73793  PMID:21157048
Dentin is the fundamental substrate of restorative dentistry and its properties and characteristics are key determinants of nearly all restorative, preventive and disease processes of the teeth. The intrinsic permeability of dentin is responsible for permitting bacterial or chemical substances to diffuse across the dentin and irritate the pulpal and periradicular tissues. Improved understanding of the dentin structure and nature will have important consequences for today's dental procedures. The aims of the study were to observe the direction of dentinal tubules, interglobular dentin, incremental lines of dentin and the dead tracts. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 teeth (15 primary and 15 permanent molars), unrestored, noncarious, hypoplastic extracted molars were used. Longitudinal ground sections of teeth were obtained using hard tissue microtome. Results: Examination of ground sections of the primary teeth dentin showed "s"-shaped curvature in four (26.7%) specimens and a straight course of dentinal tubules in 11 (73.3%) specimens out of 15 teeth examined whereas in permanent teeth, all 15 (100%) specimens showed an "s"-shaped curvature. These results are statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Dentinal tubules followed an "s"-shaped course in all the 15 (100%) permanent molars and in four (26.7%) primary molars. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of interglobular dentin of primary and permanent molars. But, they were at angles in the primary teeth.
  1 13,294 714
Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study
KS Poonacha, AL Shigli, KR Indushekar
July-September 2010, 28(3):173-178
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73798  PMID:21157049
Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF) and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA) and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.
  1 11,573 752
RURS' elbow guard: An innovative treatment of the thumb-sucking habit in a child with Hurler's syndrome
RM Shetty, U Dixit, R Hegde, PK Shivprakash
July-September 2010, 28(3):212-218
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73796  PMID:21157057
Thumb sucking is the process of sucking on the thumb for oral pleasure. Thumb and finger sucking habits, or nonnutritive sucking, are considered to be the most prevalent of oral habits. Some parents are concerned by thumb sucking and may even try to restrain the infant or child. In most cases, this is not necessary. Most children stop thumb sucking on their own. When older children continue to suck their thumbs, it could mean they are bored, anxious, or have emotional problems such as depression. This article presents a case report of a child with Hurler's syndrome along with thumb sucking/biting habit. Hurler's syndrome, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis I, is a rare condition inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. It represents the classical prototype of mucopolysaccharide disorder. A unique appliance to prevent thumb sucking/biting was developed and termed as "RURS' elbow guard," which was successfully used to break thumb sucking of the child with Hurler syndrome. The present report also describes the steps in fabrication of this new habit-breaking appliance, which is also designed to protect the finger from the effects of the sucking habit.
  - 8,728 599
Clinical management of supernumerary teeth: A report of two cases
M Mittal, A Sultan
July-September 2010, 28(3):219-222
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73794  PMID:21157058
Supernumerary tooth may closely resemble the teeth of the group to which it belongs, i.e. molars, premolars or anterior teeth, or it may bear little resemblancein size or shape to which it is associated. Many complications can be associated with supernumeraries, like impaction, delayed eruption or ectopic eruption of adjacent teeth, crowding, development of median diastema and eruption into floor of the nasal cavity. This may also cause the formation of follicular cysts with significant bone destruction. Early intervention to remove it is usually required to obtain reasonable alignment and occlusal relationship. This article will present the clinical management of an (i) impacted supernumerary tooth impeding the eruption of maxillary central incisor and (ii) erupted supernumerary tooth with midline diastema.
  - 10,962 668
Cricket ball trauma causing temporal space abscess: Report of a case
PP Waknis, S Sabhlok, R Deshpande
July-September 2010, 28(3):234-236
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73785  PMID:21157061
A 9-year-old boy reported with swelling on right side of the face after injury by a cricket ball while fielding. There was a history of hot fermentation after which the swelling increased in size leading to a temporal space abscess. The patient underwent incision and drainage with uneventful healing and was followed-up for a period of 7 years.
  - 3,449 180
Greetings from Davangere, Karnataka
VV Subba Reddy
July-September 2010, 28(3):137-137
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73779  PMID:21157042
  - 1,980 145
Comparative evaluation of the effect of topical fluorides on the microhardness of various restorative materials: An in vitro study
NC Gill, A Pathak
July-September 2010, 28(3):193-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73784  PMID:21157053
Context: Topical fluorides can recharge the fluoride content of exhausted glass ionomer cements, converting them into fluoride reservoirs. However, the high reactivity of fluoride agents used in topical fluorides may result in the deterioration of surface properties of these restorations. Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of topical fluorides on the microhardness of conventional glass ionomer cements (Fuji II,GC Corporation,Tokyo, Japan and Ketac Fil Plus,3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), high viscosity conventional glass ionomer cements (Ketac Molar Easymix, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany and Fuji IX GP, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Vitremer, 3M ESPE, St.Paul, MN, USA and Fuji II LC, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Materials and Methods: Twenty-one pellets were made of each material and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48 h. These were then randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 7 pellets each. One subgroup was treated by 4 min application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel, other subgroup with 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) gel, and the third subgroup was used as control. Thereafter, all the pellets were subjected to microhardness testing (load = 100 g for 15 s). Results: APF gel of 1.23% produced a statistically significant decrease in microhardness (P<0.05) of all the restorative materials as compared with restorative materials used as control. The decrease in the microhardness was more pronounced in conventional glass ionomer cements and least pronounced in resin-modified glass ionomer cements. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in microhardness was found after NaF treatment in all the restorative materials tested as compared with control subgroups. Conclusion: The use of 1.23% APF gel may be detrimental to the long-term durability of glass ionomer restorations.
  - 4,947 531
Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children
KE Vijayaprasad, KS Ravichandra, A.A.K Vasa, S Suzan
July-September 2010, 28(3):156-161
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.73789  PMID:21157046
Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75) attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group). Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.
  - 5,948 691
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  2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
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