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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2015| July-September  | Volume 33 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 9, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children
Mangalampally Shilpapriya, Mungara Jayanthi, Venumbaka Nilaya Reddy, Rajendran Sakthivel, Girija Selvaraju, Poornima Vijayakumar
July-September 2015, 33(3):173-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160343  PMID:26156269
Aim: Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel's behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001) compared to the injections without the use of vibe. Conclusion: The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.
  5,933 755 -
CASE REPORTS
Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance
Juhi Ansar, Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Raj Kumar Singh
July-September 2015, 33(3):255-258
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160405  PMID:26156283
Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC). However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA) is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.
  5,912 503 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients
Rajwinder Kaur, Ritu Jindal, Rohini Dua, Sandeep Mahajan, Kunal Sethi, Sunny Garg
July-September 2015, 33(3):192-203
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160357  PMID:26156272
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children's response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. Study Design: This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.
  5,720 626 -
CASE REPORTS
Dentine in a capsule: Clinical case reports
Mallikarjuna Kenchappa, Shilpi Gupta, Puneet Gupta, Priyamvada Sharma
July-September 2015, 33(3):250-254
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160404  PMID:26156282
Biodentine TM , a calcium silicate based material has been popular now and can be used as an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) due to superior physical and biologic properties. It has been known by several terms as Biodentine, dentin substitute, and RD 94. It has varied clinical applications such as apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, internal resorption, root perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping procedure, and dentin replacement. This article describes the clinical case reports using Biodentine in apexification, apexogenesis, pulpotomy, and root perforation repair.
  4,985 522 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Finite Element Stress Analysis of Stainless Steel Crowns
Attiguppe R Prabhakar, Chandrashekar M Yavagal, Amrita Chakraborty, S Sugandhan
July-September 2015, 33(3):183-191
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160352  PMID:26156271
Background: Though stainless steel crowns (SSCs) have often been stated as the best restorative modality, there are limited studies demonstrating its efficacy in restoring the functional integrity of the primary dentition. Hence has arisen, the necessity to establish the supremacy of SSCs. Aim: Evaluation of the efficacy of SSC to with stand compressive (0°), shearing (90°), and torsional (45°) stress when used as a restorative material. Settings and Design: The study design employed four finite element models, each with differing amounts of tooth structure, which were exported to ANSYS software and subjected to an average simulated bite force of 245N. Materials and Methods: Four maxillary deciduous primary molars restored with SSCs (3M ESPE) were subjected to spiral computed tomography (CT) in order to obtain three-dimensional (3D) images, which were then converted into finite element models. They were each subjected to forces along the long axis of the tooth and at 45°and 90°. Results: The maximal equivalent von Mises stress was demonstrated in the SSCs of all the models with only a minimal amount observed in the underlying dentine. In all situations, the maximal equivalent von Mises stress was well below the ultimate tensile strength values of stainless steel and dentine. Conclusion: Even at maximal physiologic masticatory force levels, a grossly destructed tooth restored with SSC is able to resist deformation.
  4,374 495 -
Knowledge and attitude in regards to physical child abuse amongst medical and dental residents of central Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey
Anshula Deshpande, Chirag Macwan, KS Poonacha, Seema Bargale, Steffi Dhillon, Prriya Porwal
July-September 2015, 33(3):177-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160344  PMID:26156270
Context: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic, and sexual maltreatment met out to a person below the age of 18 and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude, and trends of the problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of medical and dental residents with regards to physical child abuse of central Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical and dental residents of central Gujarat. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire for a total of 130 residents, in which 89 medical and 41 dental residents responded. Results: Knowledge regarding the social indicator of child abuse was found to be poor in 27.7% (n = 36), average in 68.5% (n = 89), and good in 3.8% (n = 5); and for physical indicator it was found to be poor in 10.8% (n = 14), average 66.9% (n = 87), and good 22.3% (n = 29). Forty-nine percent (n = 64) of the respondents reported having formal training in recognizing child abuse, and 32% (n = 42) had read literature on the topic. Fifty-five percent (n = 72) stated that education regarding child abuse is extremely important. Conclusions: Result of the present study found that medical and dental residents are not sufficiently prepared to endure their role in protection of child from abuse. A significant gap existed between recognizing signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide adequate knowledge.
  3,852 379 -
Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere
M Kirthiga, P Poornima, R Praveen, P Gayathri, M Manju, M Priya
July-September 2015, 33(3):213-217
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160366  PMID:26156275
Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar. There is a rarity of prevalence studies in Indian population. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH in a population of South Indian children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey, included 2000 children aged 11-16 years chosen by stratified random sampling from government and private schools of Davangere, a city in South India. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of MIH and decayed, missing and filled teeth was carried out in these children by a calibrated examiner. The severity of hypomineralization was recorded according to the Wetzel and Reckel scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: About 8.9% of all examined children showed at least one ill-structured first permanent molar in terms of MIH. The male and female ratio was found to be 1:1.1. The decreasing order of occurrence of MIH affected teeth were permanent maxillary molars, maxillaryincisors, mandibular molars and the mandibular incisors. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of south Indian children was 8.9%. There is a need for a proper planned preventive and restorative program with regard to the increasing prevalence of MIH.
  3,448 396 -
Psychometric properties of the Malayalam version of ECOHIS
Sangeetha Govinda Bhat, Rema Sivaram
July-September 2015, 33(3):234-238
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160398  PMID:26156279
Background: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) has been developed in English for determining oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the preschool children. It has been translated and validated in different languages to suit different cultures. The ECOHIS is, till date, the only tool available for research in this field on preschool age children. A similar version of this tool is not available for use in the local language Malayalam. Aim: This study aimed to develop and validate a Malayalam version of the ECOHIS (M-ECOHIS). Design: The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. The ECOHIS was translated into Malayalam by forward-backward translation and tested for face and content validity. The parents of 300 children were administered the M-ECOHIS and an additional global oral health (GOH) question. The children were examined for the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) which was recorded using the defs index. The internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, interobserver reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results: The tool possessed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.879; item total correlation 0.2832-0.7617); the test-retest reliability and interobserver reliability assessed using ICC (ICC = 0.9457 and 0.9460, respectively) was acceptable. The Spearman's correlation coefficient of the ECOHIS and the GOH scores, r = 0.725; P = 0.01 supported the convergent validity. The mean ECOHIS scores of children having ECC with mean ECOHIS scores of children without ECC were compared using unpaired t-test and found to be statistically significant supporting the discriminant validity of the scale. Conclusion: The M-ECOHIS can be used to assess the OHRQoL of preschool children in the Malayalam speaking community.
  3,587 217 -
Evaluation of nitrous oxide inhalation sedation during inferior alveolar block administration in children aged 7-10 years: A randomized control trial
Deepti Takkar, Arathi Rao, Ramya Shenoy, Ashwin Rao, Baranya Srikrishna Suprabha
July-September 2015, 33(3):239-244
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160399  PMID:26156280
Background: Nitrous oxide-oxygen (N 2 O-O 2 ) is being used in combination with many drugs and this possess risk for leading to deep sedation or reflexes being compromised. Aim: The purpose of our study was to use N 2 O-O 2 alone, to evaluate its effectiveness for pain control during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. Design: This was a single-centered, simple randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group study involving 40 children in the age group of 7-10 years divided into 2 groups: N 2 O-O 2 sedation and oxygen. Pain perception for local anesthesia was assessed using face, legs, activity, cry, consolability scale. Children's behavior was assessed using Frankl ratings, depth of sedation using Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. The vital signs and oxygen saturation were recorded. Results: There was a significantly lower pain reaction to local anesthetic administration in the N 2 O-O 2 group (P < 0.01). Improvement in the behavior of the children belonging to N 2 O-O 2 group during and after the procedure as compared to the O 2 group (P < 0.01) was also observed. All the vital signs recorded were in the normal physiologic limits in both the groups. Conclusion: Pain experienced by children receiving N 2 O-O 2 sedation was significantly lower. N 2 O-O 2 inhalation sedation produces adequate sedation with vital signs within normal limits and treatments successfully completed.
  3,384 323 -
A comparative effect of various surface chemical treatments on the resin composite-composite repair bond strength
Shaloo Gupta, Abhishek Parolia, Ashish Jain, M Kundabala, Mandakini Mohan, Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes Porto
July-September 2015, 33(3):245-249
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160402  PMID:26156281
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was an attempt to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength between pre-existing composite and repair composite resin. Materials and Methods: Forty acrylic blocks were prepared in a cuboidal mould. In each block, a well of 5 mm diameter and 5 mm depth was prepared to retain the composite resin (Filtek™ Z350, 3M/ESPE). Aging of the composite discs was achieved by storing them in water at 37°C for 1 week, and after that were divided into 5 groups (n = 8) according to surface treatment: Group I- 37% phosphoric acid, Group II-10% hydrofluoric acid, Group III-30% citric acid, Group IV-7% maleic acid and Group V- Adhesive (no etchant). The etched surfaces were rinsed and dried followed by application of bonding agent (Adper™ Single Bond 2. 3M/ESPE). The repair composite was placed on aged composite, light-cured for 40 seconds and stored in water at 37°C for 1 week. Shear bond strength between the aged and the new composite resin was determined with a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min). Statistical Analysis: The compressive shear strengths were compared for differences using ANOVA test followed by Tamhane's T2 post hoc analysis. Results: The surface treatment with 10% hydrofluoric acid showed the maximum bond strength followed by 30% citric acid, 7% maleic acid and 37% phosphoric acid in decreasing order. Conclusion: The use of 10% hydrofluoric acid can be a good alternative for surface treatment in repair of composite resin restoration as compared to commonly used 37% orthophosphoric acid.
  3,351 348 -
Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years
Piyusha S Patil, Pallavi Pujar, VV Subbareddy
July-September 2015, 33(3):218-222
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160370  PMID:26156276
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Results: Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Conclusion: Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.
  3,323 316 -
Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe
TD Yogesh Kumar, J Baby John, Sharath Asokan, PR Geetha Priya, R Punithavathy, V Praburajan
July-September 2015, 33(3):223-228
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160394  PMID:26156277
Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD). Design: A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a) 20% benzocaine; (b) pressure with cotton applicator; (c) no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001), and pulse rate (P < 0.05) when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.
  3,226 303 -
Comparative evaluation of adequacy of final working length after using Raypex5 or radiography: An in vivo study
Deepika Singh, Shashi Prabha Tyagi, Swati Gupta, Ankita Jain
July-September 2015, 33(3):208-212
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160363  PMID:26156274
Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to compare the effect of working length (WL) determination using electronic apex locator (EAL) or WL radiograph on the length adequacy of final WL. Materials and Methods: A total of 153 patients with 153 teeth with single canal were randomized into two groups; in Group 1, the WL was determined by WL radiograph; whereas in Group 2, it was determined by the Raypex5 EAL (VDW, Munich, Germany). Length adequacy was assessed in each group for master cone and categorized into short, acceptable, and over cases. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using the Pearson chi-square test at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the rates of acceptable (Group 1 = 83.1% and Group 2 = 92.1%) and short cases (Group 1 = 3.9% and Group 2 = 5.2%). Over cases in master cone radiography were significantly more in Group 1 (13.1%) than Group 2 (2.6%) (P = 0.017). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that under clinical condition, success of Raypex5 was comparable to the radiographic WL determination technique in terms of acceptable and short cases. However, there were significantly lesser over cases in EAL group, showing that EALs can avoid the overestimation of WL.
  2,933 329 -
Apgar index as a probable risk indicator for enamel defects in primary dentition: A cross sectional study
S. V. S. G. Nirmala, Mohammed Akhil Quadar, Sindhuri Veluru, Namratha Tharay, Naveen Kumar Kolli, MS Minor Babu
July-September 2015, 33(3):229-233
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160396  PMID:26156278
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Apgar index with that of enamel defects and to explore gender predilection as a co-variable in the formation of enamel defects. Materials and methods: A random sample of 108 individuals (46 boys and 62 girls) aged 4-5 years (mean - 4.4 years) were included in the study. A questionnaire containing subject's demographic information, Apgar Index (AI), enamel hypoplasia and hypocalcification was collected. Intraoral examination of the subjects was performed by using the type III diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO for oral health surveys. According to the modified index for developmental enamel defects, visual and tactile examinations of the entire primary dentition were performed.The data obtained was analysed using chi-square test. Results: Of all the examined individuals 18 (16.7%) showed enamel defects, of which 10 (9.3%) were having enamel hypoplasia, 4 (3.7%) were having enamel hypocalcification and 4 (3.7%) were having both. Correlation of the enamel defects such as hypoplasia, hypocalcification and both had no significant relationship with the gender (P = 0.36). Conclusion: Subjects with lower Apgar Index exhibited more hypoplastic and hypocalcified teeth both qualitatively and quantitatively. If the Apgar value is less than 6, the vulnerability for the development of enamel defects has considerably increased. Gender of the individuals did not influence the final outcome.
  2,956 281 -
Comparative evaluation of smear layer removal by various chemomechanical caries removal agents: An in vitro SEM study
Rani Somani, Shipra Jaidka, Deepti Jawa, Shreya Mishra
July-September 2015, 33(3):204-207
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160358  PMID:26156273
Objectives: To comparatively evaluate the efficiency of various chemomechanical caries removal agents in smear layer removal. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 45 extracted, noncarious molars and were divided into three groups according to the chemical treatment received. The samples were then gold palladium coated and viewed under scanning electron microscope. The presence of smear layer was evaluated based on the microscopic observations. Result and Observation: The results indicated that smear layer removal was significantly higher in the sodium hypochlorite-based chemomechanical caries removal agents than in the papain-based chemomechanical caries removal agent and was least in the control group treated with saline. Conclusion: The smear layer removal was maximum with Carisolv followed by the cariecare and was minimum in the saline-treated group.
  2,824 370 -
CASE REPORTS
Management of congenital choanal atresia: A pedodontist's role
Fathima Niloofar, Kumaran Parvathy, Balagopal R Varma, Xavier Arun Mamachan
July-September 2015, 33(3):259-261
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160407  PMID:26156284
Choanal atresia is a rare cryptic congenital anomaly with developmental failure of the nasal cavity to communicate with the nasophaynx, resulting in a significant physiological and anatomical alteration of the dento-facial complex. It is considered as a life-threatening or lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Elective transnasal endoscopic repair is the most preferred and minimally invasive procedure to correct this anomaly. This case report describes the multi-disciplinary team approach that included pedodontists to manage the case of a 6-month-old infant with choanal atresia suffering from breathlessness, feeding difficulty, and disturbed sleep.
  2,793 181 -
EDITORIAL
Scientific delinquencies
ND Shashikiran
July-September 2015, 33(3):171-172
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.160341  PMID:26156268
  1,958 146 -
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  2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
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