|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 115-118
YouTube™ as a source of information on oral habits
Huseyin Simsek1, Suleyman Kutalmış Buyuk2, Ebru Çetinkaya1
1 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey
2 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey
|Date of Submission||09-Dec-2019|
|Date of Decision||05-Feb-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||04-May-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jun-2020|
Dr. Suleyman Kutalmış Buyuk
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, 52200, Ordu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of oral habit videos on YouTube™. Materials and Methods: The four keywords “Oral Habits,” “Thumb Sucking,” “Tongue Thrust”, and “Finger Sucking” relevant terms oral habits were searched on YouTube™. The videos sorted by view count were screened and evaluated. The following exclusion criteria were defined as; non-English videos, unrelated to a topic, poor audio-video quality, and duplication. A hundred videos were analyzed for general video characteristics (number of views, likes, dislikes, number of comments, and uploaded date) the purpose of the video, information content, audio-visual quality, and viewers' interaction index. Results: The top hundred videos have been viewed an average of 26,870.83 times. Most videos were uploaded by dentists (n = 29; 29.0%). Most of the videos (44.0%) were classified as having moderate general information content and 38.0% were rated as good, and 18.0% were rated as poor. Videos generally involved information about oral habits (82.0%), followed by personal experience (12.0%). The viewers' interaction index of all evaluated YouTube™ videos was 0.59. Good content videos had a significantly higher interaction index than the other groups (P = 0.011). Conclusions: YouTube™ videos about the oral habits are generally inadequate and patients must be recommended to view them with caution. High quality and more informative videos about oral habits in dentistry should be uploaded to YouTube™ by professionals.
Keywords: Oral habits, social media, video analysis, YouTube
|How to cite this article:|
Simsek H, Buyuk SK, Çetinkaya E. YouTube™ as a source of information on oral habits. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2020;38:115-8
| Introduction|| |
Internet and social media platforms are an attractive information areas for patients about medicine and dentistry. People use Internet resources to learn about bad oral habits in their children or themselves, as well as many other topics. Social media is an independent platform and it can be reached quickly and easily. There is an increase in the information that patients obtain from such social media platforms and the Internet with the widespread use of social media accounts.
Oral habits are the most common causes of acquired orthodontic malocclusions. The dentoalveolar structures may be affected depending on the duration and severity of these oral habits. Parents have become more conscious about using a baby bottle, finger sucking, and swallowing disorders with the developing community. The most common bad oral habit is reported as finger sucking. YouTube™ is a very popular video sharing platform where patients can look for information about medicine and dentistry. Videos may be uploaded from many different sources in all languages. YouTube™ contains a lot of videos in the field of dentistry. These videos may be uploaded by dentists who share their experiences and ideas about the related topics. The uploaded videos may include a wide variety of audio and video quality. However, YouTube™ content is not controlled by a referee. Therefore, the uploaded videos may be misleading and unreliable as an information source.
There are numerous studies on different YouTube™ topics about the dentistry;,, however, there are no studies were found on YouTube™ related to bad oral habits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the content, characteristics, and quality of the popular YouTube™ videos about oral habits.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A YouTube™ account was created for the present study. Google Trends website was used to determine keywords about oral habits. These keywords were “bad oral habits,” “finger sucking,” “thumb-sucking” and “tongue thrust.” This study did not require the approval of the local ethics committee, the study comprises only public data. After entering the keywords, the videos were sorted using the “number of views” filter in the filter section. English language and acceptable sound-image quality videos about the topic were included in this study. There are no restrictions on the length of the video. Commercial ads videos, non-English videos, duplicate videos, and videos with unacceptably poor sound-image quality were excluded from the study. All video URL links were saved.
The evaluation of the videos was performed by a pediatric dentistry research assistant (E.C.) on February 3, 2019. The selected hundred videos about the oral habits were evaluated in terms of the number of views, duration (minutes), the purpose and source of the video, the number of likes, the number of comments, the number of dislikes, the information quality and the quality of the sound-image, and uploaded date.
The video resource was categorized as (1) dentist, (2) personal, (3) dental clinic, (4) myotherapist, (5) TV program, and (6) other. The aim of the video was categorized as (1) advertisement, (2) education, (3) information, and (4) personal experience. The audio-image quality was categorized as good, moderate, and poor. The information sufficiency was classified as good, moderate, and poor based on Hegarty et al. The viewers' interaction index ([number of likes-dislike/total number of views) was calculated using the formula × 100%).
Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software (SPSS for Windows version 20.0; SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were determined for video characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the video parameters between good, moderate, and poor information content videos. All videos were evaluated again by the same researcher (E.C.) 1 month after. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate video information content in intra-observer correlation. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The intra-observer agreement for information sufficiency of the videos were very good (κ: 0.839).
| Results|| |
[Table 1] shows the video characteristics of all evaluated videos about oral habits. The average number of views of hundred videos that were included in the study was 26,870.83. The most-watched video included an interview with a dentist to provide information about bad oral habits. This video had a total of 591,757 views. The videos were uploaded mostly by dentists (29.29%). The longest video was 57.33 min long and the shortest video's duration was 23 s. The maximum number of comments belonged to a video uploaded by a dentist for informational purposes. The highest number of likes was 4437, and the highest number of dislikes was 328.
|Table 1: Descriptive statistics of the YouTube™ videos about oral habits|
Click here to view
[Table 2] shows the comparison of video parameters between good, moderate, and poor information content videos. Good content videos had a significantly higher interaction index than the other groups (P = 0.011). Nevertheless, the number of views, number of likes, dislikes, and comments did not have significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05).
|Table 2: Comparison of video parameters between good, moderate, and poor information about oral habit videos|
Click here to view
[Figure 1] shows the percentage distributions of the YouTube™ videos according to the video source. According to the purposes, the definition of oral habits were the most commonly covered topics information (82%), followed by personal experience (12%), education (4%), and advertisement (2%) [Figure 2]. The audio-visual quality of the videos was generally moderate (48%) or good (34%) with only 18% regarded as categorized of poor quality.
|Figure 1: The percentage distributions of the videos according to the video source|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: The percentage distributions of the videos according to video purpose|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
There are many studies about the content of YouTube™ videos related to various dentistry areas such as orthodontics, clear aligners, early childhood caries, and dental implant in the literature.,, This is the first study to investigate the quality and content of YouTube™ videos about oral habits.
Social media platforms are an easier communication network for patients and their parents. However, sharing personal experiences involves some risks. Inaccurate information can cause misinformation in society. As with all other social media platforms, YouTube™ videos do not undergo any peer review. Moreover, the quality of the information uploaded YouTube™ videos is controversial in medical and dentistry areas. Dentists and oral health professionals must keep in mind that YouTube™ videos may not be interpreted correctly.
Most YouTube™ videos were uploaded by dentists for information purposes about oral habits topics in the present study. It was also seen that dentists also shared their video content, which they presented on their patients, as well as the video content they provided information about their habit-breaking appliances. Furthermore, speech therapists uploaded normal adult swallowing training videos on YouTube™.
In the present study, most YouTube™ videos had moderate and good information quality. In our study, most of the top-ranked YouTube™ videos had low information content, and some videos were excluded from this study. This means that the relevance of YouTube™ videos does not reflect the actual content of the videos.
Good-content videos viewers' interaction indexes were higher than the moderate and poor-content videos and this difference was statistically significant. This indicates that viewers were not satisfied with YouTube™ video content. Poor-content YouTube™ videos about oral habits were generally insufficient in this present study. High-quality and more informative videos about oral habits in dentistry should be uploaded to YouTube™ by dentists.
| Conclusions|| |
Most YouTube™ videos about oral habits were evaluated as moderate content in terms of information. High quality and more informative YouTube™ videos about oral habits in dentistry should be uploaded to YouTube™ by dental-health professionals. Furthermore informative studies are needed to evaluate the quality of knowledge about the treatment of oral habits on different social platforms.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
ElKarmi R, Hassona Y, Taimeh D, Scully C. YouTube as a source for parents' education on early childhood caries. Int J Paediatr Dent 2017;27:437-43.
de Boer MJ, Versteegen GJ, van Wijhe M. Patients' use of the Internet for pain-related medical information. Patient Educ Couns 2007;68:86-97.
Melsen B, Stensgaard K, Pedersen J. Sucking habits and their influence on swallowing pattern and prevalence of malocclusion. Eur J Orthod 1979;1:271-80.
Madathil KC, Rivera-Rodriguez AJ, Greenstein JS, Gramopadhye AK. Healthcare information on YouTube: A systematic review. Health Informatics J 2015;21:173-94.
Nason K, Donnelly A, Duncan HF. YouTube as a patient-information source for root canal treatment. Int Endod J 2016;49:1194-200.
Hegarty E, Campbell C, Grammatopoulos E, DiBiase AT, Sherriff M, Cobourne MT. YouTube™as an information resource for orthognathic surgery. J Orthod 2017;44:90-6.
Livas C, Delli K, Pandis N. “My Invisalign experience”: Content, metrics and comment sentiment analysis of the most popular patient testimonials on YouTube. Prog Orthod 2018;19:3.
Hassona Y, Taimeh D, Marahleh A, Scully C. YouTube as a source of information on mouth (oral) cancer. Oral Dis 2016;22:202-8.
Abukaraky A, Hamdan AA, Ameera MN, Nasief M, Hassona Y. Quality of YouTube TM videos on dental implants. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2018;23:e463-8.
Harris C, Chestnutt I. The use of the Internet to access oral health-related information by patients attending dental hygiene clinics. Int J Dent Hyg 2005;3:70-3.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2]