Home | About Us | Editorial Board | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions | Subscription | Feedback | e-Alerts | Login 
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
 Users Online: 2532  
 
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size


 
  Table of Contents    
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 262-266
 

Effect of a wear-resistant resin coat on the color stability of a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative material


Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark, New Jersey, USA

Date of Submission08-Sep-2020
Date of Decision10-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance03-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication22-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Madhu Mohan
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, 110 Bergen Steet, Newark, New Jersey 07101
USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_387_20

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 


Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Equia Forte Coat on the color stability of Equia Forte Fil. Materials and Methods: Sixty discs of Equia Forte Fil were randomly divided into two groups. One group of 30 samples was treated with Equia Forte Coat according to the manufacturer's directions. The other 30 discs were not coated. All discs were continuously soaked in cola for 7 consecutive days. The color changes in the Equia Forte Fil samples were determined using a colorimeter. The color difference (△E) was calculated using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* coordinates. Results: There was a significant difference in ΔE between the two groups (P < 0.0001). The group with Equia Forte Coat had significantly less color change than the group without the Equia Forte Coat. Conclusion: The application of the Equia Forte Coat significantly improved the color stability of Equia Forte Fil.


Keywords: Colorimetry, resin coat, resin-modified glass ionomer


How to cite this article:
Mohan M, Aljohani Y, Rosivack R G. Effect of a wear-resistant resin coat on the color stability of a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative material. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2021;39:262-6

How to cite this URL:
Mohan M, Aljohani Y, Rosivack R G. Effect of a wear-resistant resin coat on the color stability of a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative material. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 5];39:262-6. Available from: https://www.jisppd.com/text.asp?2021/39/3/262/330709





   Introduction Top


Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood with a prevalence almost five times that of asthma.[1],[2],[3] Early childhood caries (ECC) is a condition defined by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) as the presence of one or more decayed (noncavitated or cavitated), missing (as a result of caries), or filled tooth surfaces in any primary tooth in a child 71 months of age or younger.[4] ECC can be painful, debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development, and social outcomes. ECC may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system.[5],[6],[7],[8]

There are multiple esthetic restorative materials available to pediatric dentists to restore caries lesions. Options for restoration include glass ionomer cements (GICs), resin-modified GICs (RMGICs), polyacid-modified resin composites (compomers), and composite resins (CRs). Scientific evidence and clinical judgment is needed to determine which material to use depending on the patient's needs and clinical situation. Recently, there has been significant improvement in the technology related to RMGICs. RMGICs contain some of the same components as conventional GICs giving them the benefit of long-term adhesion and fluoride release as well as the advantages of resin in terms of improved strength and esthetics.[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14]

In pediatric patients, the dentist must provide quality treatment while managing the patient's experience within the constraints of available restorative options. RMGICs can be ideal for certain indications such as atraumatic restorative treatment which provides a minimally invasive procedure and esthetic results.[15],[16],[17],[18]

Color stability is essential in the selection of an esthetic restoration to mimic the appearance of natural tooth structure. Color stability is affected by intrinsic factors such as the filler particles and resin matrix, and extrinsic factors such as absorption of stains, diet, oral hygiene, and surface smoothness of the restoration.[19],[20],[21] Previous studies have also found that certain shades of RMGICs are more susceptible to staining than others. One study found that the darker C shades of the composite were more susceptible to stain than the lighter composite shades.[26]

Recently, Equia Forte Coat (GC America Inc., IL, USA), a light-cured, self-adhesive wear-resistant resin coat has been introduced. The material is reported to provide higher wear resistance and improve the surface hardness of Equia Forte Fil.[22]

Many studies have evaluated the effects of beverages on the color stability of restorative materials;[21],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33] however, the effects of a resin coat on the color stability of RMGICs have not been reported. This study assessed the role of a resin coat on the color stability of a RMGIC.

Previous studies have evaluated the effect of various staining solutions on restorative materials.[31] It has been established that cola, a beverage consumed by children, stains pediatric restorative materials and that RMGICs are less stain resistant than other pediatric restorative materials.[26] Since there are advantages to using RMGICs (fluoride release and chemical bonding to tooth structure), it would be beneficial to find a method to enhance their color stability.

The effect of Equia Forte Coat on the color stability of Equia Forte Fil has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the current study assessed the effect of the Equia Forte Coat on the color stability of Equia Forte Fil when stained with cola.


   Materials and Methods Top


In this in vitro study, 60 disc-shaped specimens measuring 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) in diameter and 1.5 mm in thickness were fabricated of EQUIA Forte Fil shade B1 (GC America Inc., IL, USA). Shade B1 was used as it is one of the most prevalent shades used in pediatric dentistry.

For the fabrication of the specimens, a flat metal EverBilt washer, distributed by Home Depot (Atlanta, GA, USA) was used as a mold. It was placed on a glass slab. The washer was filled with Equia Forte Fil following the manufacturer's instructions and a Mylar strip was placed over it and excess material was removed.

The material was cured for 40 s with an Elipar™ DeepCure-S LED Curing Light (3M/ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) that has a wavelength range of 430–480 nm in an effort to hasten the setting time. The curing light was calibrated using the light intensity meter of the Elipar™ DeepCure-S LED Curing Light charging station to ensure a consistent cure throughout the fabrication process. The material was then allowed to set for 15 min before removal from the mold. Next, the specimens were randomly divided into two groups. For the first group of 30 discs, the specimens were finished and polished with a fine diamond bur as per the manufacturer's instructions. Then Equia Forte Coat was applied following the manufacturer's instructions and cured with the same curing light for an additional 20 s. As for the second group of 30 discs, the specimens were not finished or polished and were not coated with any material.

Both groups were then stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 h. Next, an initial color reading was performed for all 60 discs. Both groups were then stored in a cola-based beverage for seven consecutive days (Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA, USA) The ingredients in Coca-Cola are high fructose corn syrup, caramel color, phosphoric acid, natural flavors, caffeine. The samples were stored for 7 days at standardized conditions of 37°C in plastic ice cube trays. The ice cube trays were wrapped with a nylon wrap cover to prevent evaporation of the staining solution that could lead to changes in volumes of the beverage.

After 7 days, the specimens were gently washed with distilled water for 5 min and dried with tissue paper and a second color measurement was recorded using the colorimeter.

The color was measured using a colorimeter, model CS-10 (Hangzhou CHNSpec Technology Co., Ltd, Hangzhou City China). This color reader has a probe testing port diameter of 38 mm that facilitates color measurement in small samples. The colorimeter was calibrated as per the manufacturer's instructions once it was turned on. The calibration was performed using a white standard and a black standard (supplied with the instrument) with known color dimensions. The colorimeter was placed flush on all the samples during measurement. The specimens were kept against a white background during all measurements. This ensured that the reader was used with a consistent background for each specimen and prevented variability due to absorption or any other confounding color effects.

Results

Color difference (△E) was evaluated using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L * a*b* coordinates. In the CIE-Lab system, all colors in nature are obtained from the mixture of three basic colors: red, blue, and green. L* indicates lightness, a* is the red/green coordinate, and b* is the yellow/blue coordinate. The CIE-LAB system determines color in a three-dimensional space. The following formula was used to calculate △ E for each sample:

△E* = (△L*2 + △a*2 + △b*2)½

The mean ΔE and standard deviation for each group was calculated and is shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Color change with and without resin coat

Click here to view


An independent sample t-test was used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in ΔE between Group 1 (Equia Forte Fil with Equia Forte Coat) and Group 2 (Equia Forte Fil).[35] IBM SPSS Statistics Version 26 Armonk, NY was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set to P ≤ 0.05 (two-sided).

There was a statistically significant difference in ΔE between group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.0001). The group with Equia Forte Coat had significantly less color change than the group without Equia Forte Coat, as shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of ΔE by groups and the result of independent sample t-test

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


This in vitro study of color stability of Equia Forte Fil with or without the Equia Forte Coat presents data based on exposure to cola, a drink consumed by many children and known to stain pediatric restorative materials.[19],[20],[21],[26]

In pediatric dentistry, many parents opt for esthetic restorations for their children, especially in anterior teeth.[36],[37] Children affected by ECC would benefit from the RMGICs until the primary teeth are replaced with permanent teeth or the patient is cooperative enough to receive a more esthetic restoration.

In the current study Equia Forte Coat, a hydrophilic low-viscosity nanofilled surface coating, sealed Equia Forte Fil and significantly reduced staining in the specimens after continuous immersion in cola for 7 days. Previous studies attributed the hydrophobic properties of materials such as CRs to their resistance to staining. They suggested that the hydrophilic particles in RMGICs may adversely affect their color stability.[26],[38] RMGICs are vulnerable to color change in the first hours of application and in the current study, it is postulated that Equia Forte Coat sealed and protected Equia Forte Fil from staining. In this study, the Equia Forte Coat, in spite of being hydrophilic itself, prevented the hydrophilic particles from significant discoloration. Rajic et al. reported that Equia Forte Coat seals GIC effectively leading to the reduced initial release of fluoride. In their study, they reported a significant reduction in the initial fluoride release, however fluoride release after setting continued to follow the same pattern regardless of being coated with Equia Forte Coat or not. This has also been reported in previous studies.[34],[39]

RMGICs are more vulnerable to discoloration in the first hours of application and in that period, they release the most fluoride.[34],[40],[41] The application of Equia Forte Coat might reduce the initial fluoride release, however in the current study, it significantly improved the color stability of Equia Forte Fil.

Both colorimeters and spectrophotometers have been used in similar studies to evaluate the staining of dental materials. In the current study, a colorimeter was used to measure the color change ΔE* values digitally. A standard illuminant against a consistent white background was used for each sample in order to prevent variability due to absorption or any other confounding color effects.[26]

Limitations of this in vitro study included the inability to measure marginal discoloration. Clinically, the margins tend to show more discoloration. Furthermore, the influence of saliva and the effects of salivary clearance on the color stability were not performed in this study. pH cycling could simulate the oral environment, however it was not used in this study. pH cycling typically reduces the color stability of RMGICs as they have a greater ion release when subjected to pH variations than when stored in artificial saliva or saline.[42] Moreover, the effect of thermocycling was not assessed in this study. According to Ren et al., a thermocycling stain challenge model can better represent the complex nature of the interactions between dietary colorants and CRs. Thermocycling may affect the surface integrity of the CRs and render them susceptible to discoloration.[42],[43] Finally, future studies are needed to assess the effect of Equia Forte Coat on the color stability of Equia Forte Fil in vivo.

The current study assessed the effect of the Equia Forte Coat on the color stability of Equia Forte Fil when stained with cola. Sixty disc-shaped specimens measuring 0.63 mm (1/4 inch) in diameter and 1.5 mm in thickness were fabricated of Equia Forte Fil shade B1. Half of the specimens were randomly coated with Equia Forte Coat. A colorimeter was used to assess the color of the material before and after immersion in cola for 7 consecutive days and color difference (△E) was identified using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates. The application of the Equia Forte Coat significantly improved the color stability of Equia Forte Fil.


   Conclusion Top


The application of the Equia Forte Coat significantly improved the color stability of Equia Forte Fil.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Dogan D, Dülgergil Ç, Mutluay A, Yildirim I, Hamidi M, Çolak H. Prevalence of caries among preschool-aged children in a central Anatolian population. Nat Sci Biol Med 2013;4:325.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Benjamin RM. Oral health: The silent epidemic. Public Health Rep 2010;125:158-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Livny A, Assali R, Sgan-Cohen HD. Early Childhood Caries among a Bedouin community residing in the eastern outskirts of Jerusalem. BMC Public Health 2007;7:167.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): Unique challenges and treatment options. Ref Man Pediatr Dent 2016;82-3. Available from: https://www.aapd.org/media/policies_guidelines/p_eccclassifications.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 May 11].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
de Silva-Sanigorski AM, Calache H, Gussy M, Dashper S, Gibson J, Waters E. The VicGeneration study – A birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: Background, aims and methods. BMC Public Health 2010;10:97.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Grindefjord M, Dahllöf G, Modéer T. Caries development in children from 2.5 to 3.5 years of age: A longitudinal study. Caries Res 1995;29:449-54.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gussy MG, Waters EG, Walsh O, Kilpatrick NM. Early childhood caries: Current evidence for aetiology and prevention. J Paediatr Child Health 2006;42:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Reisine S, Douglass JM. Psychosocial and behavioral issues in early childhood caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1998;26:32-44.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Berg JH. The continuum of restorative materials in pediatric dentistry – A review for the clinician. Pediatr Dent 1998;20:93-100.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Burke FJ, Fleming GJ, Owen FJ, Watson DJ. Materials for restoration of primary teeth: 2. Glass ionomer derivatives and compomers. Dent Update 2002;29:10-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Swartz ML, Phillips RW, Clark HE. Long-term F release from glass ionomer cements. Dent Res 1984;63:158-60.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Powis DR, Follerås T, Merson SA, Wilson AD. Materials science. Dent Res 1982;61:1416-22.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Pascon FM, Kantovitz KR, Caldo-Teixeira AS, Borges AF, Silva TN, Puppin-Rontani RM, et al. Clinical evaluation of composite and compomer restorations in primary teeth: 24-month results. Dent 2006;34:381-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Wilson AD. Developments in glass-ionomer cements. Int J Prosthodont 1989;2:438-46.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Croll TP, Bar-Zion Y, Segura A, Donly KJ. Clinical performance of resin-modified glass ionomer cement restorations in primary teeth. Am Dent Assoc 2001;132:1110-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Donly KJ. Restorative dentistry for children. Dent Clin North Am 2013;57:75-82.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Saber A, El-Housseiny A, Alamoudi N. Atraumatic restorative treatment and interim therapeutic restoration: A review of the literature. Dent J 2019;7:28.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Yip HK, Smales RJ, Ngo HC, Tay FR, Chu FC. Selection of restorative materials for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: A review. Spec Care Dent 2001;21:216-21.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Burduroglu D, Keyf F, Uzun G. The effect of curing time and immersion solutions on discoloration of hybrid composites and nanocomposites. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2015;6:11.  Back to cited text no. 19
  [Full text]  
20.
Patel SB, Gordon VV, Barrett AA, Shen C. The effect of surface finishing and storage solutions on the color stability of resin-based composites. Am Dent Assoc 2004;135:587-94.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sen TE, Bayrak S, Guler AU, Tuloglu N. The effects of children's drinks on the color stability of various restorative materials. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2009;34:147-50.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Brzović Rajić V, Ivanišević Malčić A, Bilge Kütük Z, Gurgan S, Jukić Krmek S, Miletić I. Compressive strength of new glass ionomer cement technology based restorative materials after thermocycling and cyclic loading. Acta Stomatol Croat 2019;53:318-25.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Curtin JA, Lu H, Milledge JT, Hong L, Peterson J. In vitro staining of resin composites by liquids ingested by children. Pediatr Dent 2008;30:317-22.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Fay RM, Walker CS, Powers JM. Discoloration of a compomer by stains. Gt Houst Dent Soc 1998;69:12-3.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Abu-Bakr N, Han L, Okamoto A, Iwaku M. Color stability of compomer after immersion in various media. Esthet Restor Dent 2000;12:258-63.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Mohan M, Shey Z, Vaidyanathan J, Vaidyanathan TK, Munisamy S, Janal M. Color changes of restorative materials exposed in vitro to cola beverage. Pediatr Dent 2008;30:309-16.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Omata Y, Uno S, Nakaoki Y, Tanaka T, Sano H, Yoshida S, et al. Staining of hybrid composites with coffee, oolong tea, or red wine. Dent Mater J 2006;25:125-31.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Villalta P, Lu H, Okte Z, Garcia-Godoy F, Powers JM. Effects of staining and bleaching on color change of dental composite resins. Prosthet Dent 2006;95:137-42.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Guler AU, Yilmaz F, Kulunk T, Guler E, Kurt S. Effects of different drinks on stainability of resin composite provisional restorative materials. Prosthet Dent 2005;94:118-24.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Gross MD, Moser JB. A colorimetric study of coffee and tea staining of four composite resins. J Oral Rehabil 1977;4:311-22.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Hotwani K, Thosar N, Baliga S. Comparative in vitro assessment of color stability of hybrid esthetic restorative materials against various children's beverages. Conserv Dent 2014;17:70-4.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Yildiz E, Sirin Karaarslan E, Simsek M, Ozsevik AS, Usumez A. Color stability and surface roughness of polished anterior restorative materials. Dent Mater J 2015;34:629-39.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Arthilakshmi Vishnurekha C, Annamalai S, Baghkomeh P, Ditto Sharmin D. Effect of protective coating on microleakage of conventional glass ionomer cement and resin-modified glass ionomer cement in primary molars: An In vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2018;29:744-8.  Back to cited text no. 33
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
34.
Brzović-Rajić V, Miletić I, Gurgan S, Peroš K, Verzak Ž, Ivanišević-Malčić A. Fluoride release from glass ionomer with nano filled coat and varnish. Acta Stomatol Croat 2018;52:307.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Hogg RV, Tanis EA. Probability and Statistical Inference.Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall; 2006. p. 735.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Chenchugopal M, Venumbaka NR, Vijayakumar P, Selvaraju G, Rajendran S, Elangovan A. Shade selection of primary maxillary anterior teeth in children using vitapan classical shade guide. Indian J Dent Res 2016;27:657-60.  Back to cited text no. 36
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
37.
Kim J, Paravina R, Chen JW. In vivo evaluation of color of primary teeth. Pediatr Dent 2007;29:383-6.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Iazzetti G, Burgess JO, Gardiner D, Ripps A. Color stability of fluoride-containing restorative materials. Oper Dent 2000;25:520-5.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
el Mallakh BF, Sarkar NK. Fluoride release from glass-ionomer cements in de-ionized water and artificial saliva. Dent Mater 1990;6:118-22.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Jevnikar P, Sersa A, Sepe A, Jahr O, Funduk N. Effect of surface coating on water migration into resin-modified glass ionomer cements: A magnetic resonance micro-imaging study. Magn Reson Med 2000;44:686-91.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Selimović-Dragaš M, Hasić-Branković L, Korać F, Đapo N, Huseinbegović A, Kobašlija S, et al. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin modified glass-ionomer cements. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2013;13:197.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Ren YF, Feng L, Serban D, Malmstrom HS. Effects of common beverage colorants on color stability of dental composite resins: The utility of a thermocycling stain challenge model in vitro. J Dent 2012;40 Suppl 1:e48-56.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Minami H, Hori S, Kurashige H, Murahara S, Muraguchi K, Minesaki Y, et al. Effects of thermal cycling on surface texture of restorative composite materials. Dent Mater J 2007;26:316-22.  Back to cited text no. 43
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
 

    

 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (488 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed158    
    Printed2    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded18    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Contact us | Sitemap | Advertise | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer 
  2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
Online since 1st May '05