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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2013| July-September  | Volume 31 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 11, 2013

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Custom-made ocular prosthesis for a pediatric patient with unilateral anopthalmia: A case report
Saurabh Shrivastava, Surendra Agarwal, Kirti Jajoo Shrivastava, Parimala tyagi
July-September 2013, 31(3):194-196
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117973  PMID:24021333
Congenitally missing eye, often called as anopthalmia, is a rare condition. This causes disfigurement of the face, which poses psychological effect on children, making them emotionally weak and conscious which, in turn, causes anxiety, stress, and depression at an early age in life. The custom-made ocular prostheses should thus be provided as soon as possible to help children improve their social acceptance. We present a case of 9-year-old boy who reported with congenital anopthalmia of right eye, which was then restored with custom-made ocular prosthesis.
  1 2,396 200
Applicability of regression equation using widths of mandibular permanent first molars and incisors as a predictor of widths of mandibular canines and premolars in contemporary Indian population
Shalin Shah, Vijay Bhaskar, Karthik Venkataraghvan, Prashant Choudhary, Ganesh Mahadevan, Krishna Trivedi
July-September 2013, 31(3):135-140
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117962  PMID:24021321
Background: Predicting the size of unerupted teeth during the mixed dentition period is a critical factor in managing the developing occlusion. Different studies found that the combined width of only the four mandibular permanent incisors is not a good predictor of the sum of unerupted mandibular permanent canines and premolars (SPCP). In 2007, Melgaço et al. developed a new method for SPCP by measuring the sum of the mandibular first permanent molars and four mandibular permanent incisors (SMI). Aim: It was aimed to evaluate the accuracy of this new method in comparison with Moyers' mixed dentition analysis table in contemporary Indian population. Settings and Design: Sixty boys and 60 girls from Gandhinagar district (age ranged from 12 to 14 years) were included. Materials and Methods: The mesiodistal crown widths of all fully erupted teeth were measured with digital vernier callipers and the odontometric values obtained were then subjected to statistical and linear regression analysis. Results: Student's unpaired t-test gave statistically significant difference between the original values of teeth and the values obtained by Melgaço's prediction equation as well as Moyers' mixed dentition analysis table (P < 0.001). High values of correlation (r = 0.77) and determination coefficients (r2 = 0.59) were found while considering Melgaço's method. Also, no statistically significant difference was found between the tooth sizes of males and females. Conclusion: From this study, it can be evaluated that Melgaço's method gives better prediction and a simplified equation Y = 0.925X can be suggested for the present population.
  1 3,860 460
Erosive oral lichen planus with cutaneous involvement in a 7-year-old girl: A rare case report
Ganapathi Moger, Chandrashekar K Thippanna, Mallikarjun Kenchappa, Vinuth D Puttalingaiah
July-September 2013, 31(3):197-200
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117972  PMID:24021334
Lichen planus is a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease, which can affect the oral mucosa, skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails, and commonly seen in adults. Childhood lichen planus is a rare entity, which is characterized by skin lesions with the oral involvement being extremely uncommon. There are only a few reports on this subject in the literature. Early and correct diagnosis with adequate management is very important to avoid further complications as it is a pre-malignant condition. Herewith, we report a seven-year-old girl having erosive oral lichen planus with cutaneous involvement, which responded well to the treatment. This is to add another case of lichen planus in a child and to emphasize its consideration in the differential diagnosis of oral mucosal red and white lesions in children.
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Delayed replantation of an avulsed maxillary premolar with open apex: A 24 months follow-up case report
KS Ravi, C Pinky, Shikhar Kumar, Amit Vanka
July-September 2013, 31(3):201-204
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117971  PMID:24021335
Avulsion of permanent teeth is most serious of all dental injuries and accounts for 1-16% of all traumatic injuries, of which maxillary incisors are most commonly involved. However, in this report a rare case of isolated avulsed immature premolar has been described. The patient had reported more than 3 hours after the trauma with a tooth stored in dry condition and soil contamination. The prognosis depends on measures taken at the place of accident or the time immediately after avulsion. Replantation is the treatment of choice, but cannot always be performed immediately. An appropriate emergency management and treatment plan is important for good prognosis. In this report stepwise management of an avulsed immature maxillary premolar with extended period of dry storage has been described followed up for a period of 2 yrs.
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Intentional extraction and replantation: The last resort
VT Abdurahiman, Sanju John Jolly, M Abdul Khader
July-September 2013, 31(3):205-208
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117969  PMID:24021336
The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don't have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.
  - 4,670 356
Dentigerous Cyst in a young child: Clinical Insight and A Case report
RJ Hegde, SS Khare, VN Devrukhkar
July-September 2013, 31(3):209-211
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117967  PMID:24021337
A dentigerous cyst or follicular cyst is an odontogenic cyst - thought to be of developmental origin - associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth. Such cyst remain initially completely asymptomatic unless when infected. The purpose of this case report was to describe the diagnosis and management of dentigerous cyst in a 9-year-old boy. The chosen treatment was cyst enucleation and tooth extraction.
  - 5,504 555
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome: A dental perspective
Bijumon , Dexton A Johns
July-September 2013, 31(3):184-187
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117978  PMID:24021330
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome is a rare progressive myopathic disorder affecting the face, chest, and limbs. It is characterized by three basic abnormalities: microstomia with pouting lips, camptodactyly with ulnar deviation of the fingers, and talipes equinovarus. Presence of microstomia is always associated with practical difficulties of oral hygiene maintenance and increased susceptibility to caries. Patient as well as parental counseling is important in these cases. This case report presents a 7-year-old child with Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. Emphasis is given for the dental management of such children.
  - 3,759 234
Kite string: An unusual mode of maxillofacial injury
Virendra Singh, Puneet Puri, Aviral Agrawal, Pradeep Kumar, Ruchi Singhal
July-September 2013, 31(3):188-190
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117976  PMID:24021331
Kite flying is a popular sport among children. Most of the injuries sustained during kite flying are due to falls, cuts, head injuries, or fractures. Injury with innocent-looking kite string in the maxillofacial region is rare. A 4½-year-old male patient with a clean cut, deep incised wound exposing the fat and muscle was treated with primary closure. Kite flying is associated with injuries ranging from simple cuts to grave lacerations or head trauma. The severity of lacerations depends on the abrasive material that is often placed on the string of the kite to increase its ability to cut. Injuries related to kite flying are preventable. Preventive measures include choosing a safe location and the need for increasing awareness about the possible effects of such a sport.
  - 3,852 208
Radicular cyst followed by incomplete pulp therapy in primary molar: A case report
C Nagarathna, AR Jaya, I Jaiganesh
July-September 2013, 31(3):191-193
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117974  PMID:24021332
Radicular cysts are one of the most common odontogenic cyst of the jaws. However, those arising from primary teeth are rare. An 8-year-old boy reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry with the chief complaint of pain and swelling on the lower left primary molar tooth region. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined radiolucency with continuous hyperostotic border. Considering the age of the child, size of lesion, and involvement of unerupted premolars; marsupialization was preferred as a conservative treatment of choice. The success of the treatment was evident both clinically and radiographically during the follow-up period.
  - 4,447 415
Appraising journals – Impact factor, citation index, …?
ND Shashikiran
July-September 2013, 31(3):133-134
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117961  PMID:24021320
  - 3,522 316
A comparison of oral hygiene status and dental caries experience among institutionalized visually impaired and hearing impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years in central India
Venugopal K Reddy, Kshitij Chaurasia, Ajay Bhambal, Ninad Moon, Eshwar K Reddy
July-September 2013, 31(3):141-145
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117963  PMID:24021322
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience among institutionalized visually impaired and hearing impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years in Bhopal city of Madhya Pradesh located in Central India. Materials and Methods: A total of 95 hearing impaired and 48 visually impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years were recruited from special care institutions (one institution of hearing impaired and two institutions of visually impaired) in Bhopal city. Information related to different study variables was obtained from both groups. Oral hygiene index simplified (OHI[S]), decayed,extracted, filled teeth (deft and DECAYED, MISSING, FILLED TETTH (DMFT)) indices were used to record the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience. Results: Mean OHI(S) score for hearing impaired was 1.15 ± 0.72 while it was 1.51 ± 0.93 for visually impaired children (P < 0.05). Mean DMFT score was 1.4 ± 1.95 and 0.94 ± 1.45 among hearing impaired and visually impaired respectively. The hearing impaired had a mean deft score of 0.47 ± 1.01 and in visually impaired it was 0.19 ± 0.79 and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Oral hygiene status of hearing impaired children was better than visually impaired and the difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference between both groups with respect to DMFT. The hearing impaired children had significantly higher deft than visually impaired.
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Liquorice root extracts as potent cariostatic agents in pediatric practice
Eesha Jain, Ramesh K Pandey, Richa Khanna
July-September 2013, 31(3):146-152
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117964  PMID:24021323
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro as well as in vivo cariostatic efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of liquorice and assess their acceptability among child patients. Materials and Methods: Minimum bactericidal concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of liquorice against mutans streptococci were evaluated and their toxicity profiles were tested using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The clinical trial was conducted as a double-blind pilot study where pediatric patients (N = 60), aged 7-14 years, were equally divided by randomization into three groups, namely, Group 1 using aqueous liquorice mouthwash (15%), Group 2 using ethanolic liquorice mouthwash (3.75%), and Group 3 using chlorhexidine gluconate (0.156%) as positive control. A baseline pre-rinse and three post-rinse saliva samples were evaluated for the changes in pH and mutans streptococci colony counts. Palatability of liquorice extracts was assessed through a self-designed questionnaire having structured categorical responses. Statistical Analysis: Parametric evaluations were done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's "t" test. Results: The mean mutans streptococci colony counts in all three groups decreased significantly (P < 0.001) immediately after the oral rinsing. The reduction in colony counts was significant in ethanolic liquorice group as compared to the control (P < 0.01). Liquorice extracts also led to an immediate rise in salivary pH. The results showed an immediate antimicrobial action of liquorice extracts, with limited retentivity. Conclusion: The study affirms that both aqueous and ethanolic liquorice extracts are potent cariostatic agents and are found to be palatable by child patients.
  - 6,415 668
Evaluation of parents/guardian knowledge about the bruxism of their children: Family knowledge of bruxism
Junia Maria Serra-Negra, Debora Tirsa-Costa, Flavia H Guimarães, Saul Martins Paiva, Isabela Almeida Pordeus
July-September 2013, 31(3):153-158
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117965  PMID:24021324
Background/Aim: Bruxism is the habitual, involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that affects both children and adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge parents/guardians have about the bruxism of their children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was developed for 221 parents/guardians of patients of the pediatric dentist in the Faculty of Dentistry of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A previously tested questionnaire, based on the criteria of the American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM), was used to collect data from the participants in the waiting room of the clinics involved. Descriptive analysis was elaborated and the chi-squared test was applied (level of significance of 5%) using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results: The majority of the participants were mothers of the patients (84.2%). The mean age of the parents/guardians was 36.6 years. The mean age of children was 7.6 years. In total, 76.6% of the mothers, 40.2% of the fathers, and 48% of the children reported having bruxism. The participants believed that bruxism was associated with emotional factors (63.8%) and/or mystical factors (20.4%). The majority reported having sought help from doctors (54.4%), followed by mystics (20.4%) and dentists (19.1%). A statistically significant association was found between bruxism and children with restless sleep (P < 0.001) and in cases where both the parents and children were affected by bruxism (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Families require greater clarification regarding the factors that trigger bruxism.
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Comparative evaluation of retention ability of amorphous calcium phosphate containing and illuminating pit & fi ssure sealants in 6-9 year old age group
Amit Kishor, Mousumi Goswami, Seema Chaudhary, Naveen Manuja, Rachita Arora, Mandeep Rallan
July-September 2013, 31(3):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117966  PMID:24021325
Aims: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the retention of two different pit and fissure sealants on permanent mandibular 1 st molar teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 children aged between 6-9 years were selected. In each child, Aegis with amorphous calcium phosphate sealant was applied on the permanent mandibular 1 st molar of the right side while Delton the illuminating sealant was applied on the permanent mandibular 1 st molar of the left side, keeping the permanent maxillary 1 st molars as control. The treated teeth were evaluated for retention of sealants at 3, 6 and 12 months interval. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests and Statistical Package for the Social Science version 15.0 statistical analysis software. Result: The results were showed that retention and loss of sealant from the occlusal surfaces of the sealed teeth in both groups was maximum between 3 and 6 months. Conclusion: Though statistically no significant difference was observed between the two groups, sealant with ACP showed better retention than the illuminating sealant.
  - 3,810 436
Reframing in dentistry: Revisited
Sivakumar Nuvvula, Rekalakshmi Kamatham, Ramasubbareddy Challa, Sharath Asokan
July-September 2013, 31(3):165-168
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117968  PMID:24021326
The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.
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Scanning electron microscope analysis of sealant penetration and adaptation in contaminated fissures
Asma Al-Jobair
July-September 2013, 31(3):169-174
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117970  PMID:24021327
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the penetration and adaptation of two different sealant materials applied under different conditions of contamination using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 extracted human third molar teeth were randomly assigned into eight equal groups. The treatment groups were defined by the combination of two sealant materials (glass ionomer fissure sealant "Fuji Triage" or resin-based fissure sealant "Clinpro TM") and four surface conditions (dry condition, water contamination, saliva contamination or saliva contamination and air-drying). Penetration depth, sealant adaptation and fissure types were evaluated under SEM after sectioning the teeth. Tukey's test and multiple linear regression analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant difference in the sealant penetration and adaptation was found between both materials under dry conditions. However, under wet contaminations, resin-based sealant showed less adaptation and penetration with a significant difference when compared to glass ionomer sealant (P < 0.05). The multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant impact of different materials and types of contamination on the sealant penetration and adaptation. Conclusion: Glass ionomer sealant has better fissure penetration and more intimate adaptation than resin-based sealant under wet contamination conditions.
  - 4,061 439
The relationship between dental anxiety in children, adolescents and their parents at dental environment
Cristiane Meira Assunção, Estela Maris Losso, Roberto Andreatini, José Vitor Nogara Borges de Menezes
July-September 2013, 31(3):175-179
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117977  PMID:24021328
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare trait anxiety and dental anxiety among children, adolescents and their parents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 100 patients from the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Parana (Brazil) between the ages of 8 and 17 years (mean age: 10.3; standard deviation: 2.03) and their parents, who responded to Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Trait Anxiety Scale. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, analysis of variance and both Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results: Ninety percent of children and adolescents and 76% of the parents had moderate anxiety based on the DAS score. Seventy-four percent of children and adolescents and 72% of the parents had moderate anxiety based on the Trait Anxiety Scale score. The trait anxiety and dental anxiety scores were correlated among the adults (rs = 0.64) and children (r = 0.52), whereas no correlation between scores was found among the adolescents. Associations were also found between children's trait anxiety and the dental and trait anxiety of their parents (both r = 0.43). Conclusions: A moderate degree of dental anxiety was prevalent among the children, adolescents and parents who took part in this investigation, with correlations demonstrated between some trait anxiety and dental anxiety scores.
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Hookah use among high school children in an Indian city
Nayak Prathibha Anand, Khandelwal Vishal, Nayak Ullal Anand, Khandelwal Sushma, Ninawe Nupur
July-September 2013, 31(3):180-183
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.117980  PMID:24021329
Context: Use of hookah is on the rise among youngsters. A growing body of evidence suggests that these children are experimenting with this form of tobacco. Aims: The study was carried out to know prevalence estimates of hookah use and factors associated with it among high school students.Settings and Design: This study adds to the current literature by providing prevalence estimates and factors associated with hookah use among high school students of Indore - a city in central India.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1000 students from high schools was conducted to find hookah users and factors associated with its use. Results: Hookah users in this study population were 7.6%. Most of them first learned about hookah from friends (63.2%). They usually smoked in hookah lounges (85.5%). These children believed that hookah was safer and more socially acceptable than cigarettes.Conclusions: Misperceptions of safety and popularity of hookah among the younger generation are cause for concern. Presence of hookah lounges should be a target for further regulation. Prevention activities are necessary to prevent this rising public health concern.
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