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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2014| January-March  | Volume 32 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 15, 2014

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Accidental periapical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: Unusual bone response and management
Divya S Sharma, Shikhar Pratap Singh Chauhan, Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni, Chitra Bhusari, Rina Verma
January-March 2014, 32(1):63-67
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127061  PMID:24531605
Premixed non-setting calcium hydroxide is frequently used as interim root canal dressing in endodontically involved permanent teeth and as obturating paste in deciduous teeth in pediatric dentistry. Wide apex in both cases makes it more prone for deliberate extrusion especially when applied with pressure delivery systems. Contrary to common belief the mix was not resorbed in two years with the complaint of insufficiency in mastication. Large mass of calcium hydroxide in bone delayed healing process even after its removal. The present case report intends to demonstrate unusual behavior of bone in response to oily non-setting preparation of calcium hydroxide. Therefore its application with pressure syringe should be reconsidered in pediatric dentistry.
  17,954 572 -
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of zinc oxide with aloe vera as an obturating material in pulpectomy: An in vivo study
Abhishek Khairwa, Manohar Bhat, Rajesh Sharma, V Satish, Prabhadevi Maganur, Anil Kumar Goyal
January-March 2014, 32(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127051  PMID:24531599
Background: Pulp therapy for pulpally involved primary teeth continues to be a challenge to clinicians. One of the major areas of continued research is in the area of finding obturating materials to suit the specific properties of these teeth. Zinc oxide eugenol is used frequently in pulpectomy for the obturation of the primary teeth. Aims: To evaluate clinically and radiographically a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol and aloe vera as an obturating material. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children, aged between 4 and 9 years, who were screened for unilateral or bilateral carious deciduous molars were studied. Out of these, 15 children were randomly selected for endodontic treatment. Obturation was done with a mixture of zinc oxide powder and aloe vera gel. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done after 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. The data were statistically analyzed. Results and Conclusion: Endodontic treatment using a mixture of zinc oxide powder and aloe vera gel in primary teeth has shown good clinical and radiographic success. A detailed observational study with longer follow-up will highlight the benefits of aloe vera in primary teeth as an obturating medium.
  9,854 1,384 4
Remineralization efficiency of bioactive glass on artificially induced carious lesion an in-vitro study
Sai Sathya Narayana, Vinoth Kumar Deepa, Shafie Ahamed, Emmanuel Solomon Sathish, R Meyappan, KS Satheesh Kumar
January-March 2014, 32(1):19-25
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127047  PMID:24531597
Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of bioactive glass containing product on remineralization of artificial induced carious enamel lesion and to compare its efficiency with other remineralization products using an in-vitro pH cycling method. The null hypothesis tested was bioactive glass has no effect on enamel remineralization. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 enamel samples of human molar teeth were subjected to artificial caries lesion formation using pH cycling method and was verified using high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM). Each demineralized sample was then divided into five test groups each containing twenty. Group A - Bioactive glass (SHY-NM), Group B - Fluoride tooth paste (Amflor), Group C - CPP-ACP (Tooth mousse), Group D - CPP-ACPF (Tooth mousse plus), Group E - control. All the test groups were exposed to the pH cycling regime, the remineralizing agents were applied for 10 min except control. After 10 days period, the entire test groups were evaluated with HRSEM and quantitative assessment by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The obtained data was analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-test and Tukey's multiple comparison tests. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Rejection of the null hypothesis and highlights the concept of biomimetic bioactive glass as an effective remineralizing agent. Clinical Relevance: To focus on the importance of minimal invasive treatment on incipient carious lesion by remineralization.
  9,784 897 11
Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: An epidemiological study
Meenu Mittal, Payal Chaudhary, Radhika Chopra, Vasudha Khattar
January-March 2014, 32(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127039  PMID:24531594
Background and Aims: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Hardly any information is available on the oral health status of children in Gurgaon. Thus, the present study was conducted among 5-year-old and 12-years-old children in schools in rural Gurgaon. Materials and Methods: A total of 1003 children were examined of which 619 were in 5 years age group and 384 in 12 years group. The prevalence of dental caries was studied using dentition status and treatment needs index. For dental calculus criteria of Community Periodontal and for dental fluorosis Dean's index was used. Results: In 5 years age group prevalence of dental caries was 68.5%, dental fluorosis was 22.5% and treatment needs were 63.7%. In 12 year age group prevalence of dental caries was 37.5%, dental fluorosis was 76.04%, highest community periodontal index score was 2, seen in 80.2% and overall treatment needs were 44.3%. Conclusion: Preventive approaches seem to be a viable alternative to tackle the overwhelming problem of dental caries and other oral diseases. Provision of oral health education in schools and school based preventive programs are important for improvement of this situation.
  7,902 710 6
Osteosarcoma of mandible in a 10-year-old girl
SVSG Nirmala, Sivakumar Nuvvula, Kishore Kumar, Minor Babu, Sandeep Chilamakuri
January-March 2014, 32(1):74-78
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127067  PMID:24531608
Osteosarcoma (OS) of the jaws is a relatively rare malignant bone tumor. Like, its counterpart in the long bones, OS affecting the head and neck region shows distinct yet diverse clinical, histologic and prognostic characteristics. Here, we report a rare case of OS of fibroblastic variant in a 10-year-old girl, who came with a bony swelling in the left mandibular posterior region, with a radiographic presentation of sunburst appearance, the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent partial mandibulectomy under general anesthesia followed by prosthodontic rehabilitation and is currently undergoing regular follow-up examination.
  7,498 369 1
Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18, Del(18p) syndrome
Prashant Babaji, Anurag Singh, Himani Lau, G Lamba, P Somasundaram
January-March 2014, 32(1):68-70
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127063  PMID:24531606
Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18 is a rare syndrome clinically presenting with variable mental retardation, growth retardation, low height, pectus excavatum, craniofacial malformations including long ear, ptosis, microcephaly and short neck. This case report presents with characteristic features along with rare feature of single nostril.
  7,555 260 3
Impact of visual instruction on oral hygiene status of children with hearing impairment
V Sandeep, C Vinay, V Madhuri, Veerabhadra V Rao, KS Uloopi, R Chandra Sekhar
January-March 2014, 32(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127053  PMID:24531600
Background: Children with hearing impairment (CHI) have poor oral health and extensive unmet treatment needs. This could be attributed to their inability to cooperate with dental treatment and lack of oral health awareness due to communication barriers. Aim: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of visual instruction on oral hygiene status of CHI. Study Design: Prospective triple blind interventional study. Materials and Methods: Oral hygiene status of 372 institutionalized CHI aged 6-16 years, divided into study (180) and control groups (192) was evaluated using Loe and Silness Gingival index and Silness and Loe Plaque index. Motivation in the form of visual instruction was done in the study group every weekend for 12 weeks and control group was followed without motivation. Oral hygiene status was re-assessed and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used to compare the scores before and after the instructions. Unpaired t-test was used for intergroup comparison between the study and control groups. Results: There was a significant mean reduction of plaque (0.37) and gingival scores (0.39) in the study group, but only marginal reduction of plaque (0.08) and gingival scores (0.1) observed in the control group. Significant gender and age variations were observed. Conclusion: Visual instruction was found to be an effective oral health education tool in CHI.
  6,506 642 3
Plagiarism and academic integrity
ND Shashikiran
January-March 2014, 32(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.126989  PMID:24531593
  6,784 350 -
Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic South Indian pediatric population
Rajesh T Anegundi, Veeresh S Tegginmani, Prashant Battepati, Anand Tavargeri, Shruthi Patil, Vijay Trasad, Garima Jain
January-March 2014, 32(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127041  PMID:24531595
Background: Supernumerary teeth are one of the most widely reported and significant anomaly in patients affecting the primary and early mixed dentition. Aim: To describe the distribution and characteristics of the supernumerary teeth in South Indian population of paediatric patients. Design: In a 12 year retrospective study, a total of 63,569 patients up to the age of 14 years who visited our department between June 2003 and May 2013 were revised.790 cases of supernumerary teeth were found. Patients were evaluated for age, sex, site, status of dentition, number, position, orientation and type of supernumerary teeth. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi square test. Results: 790 subjects with supernumerary teeth (481 males and 309 females) were detected, revealing male-female ratio of 1.55:1.The most common supernumerary teeth were mesiodens (82.28%), the most common site was the anterior maxilla (92.53%)region. Majority of patients had a single erupted supernumerary oriented straight in the arch. Patients in mixed dentition stage reported with maximum number of supernumerary teeth. Conclusions: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in non syndromicSouth Indian paediatric population is 1.24% with slight male predilection and conical mesiodens being the commonest.
  6,450 552 1
Evaluation and comparison of white mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol medicaments in primary tooth pulpotomy: Clinical and radiographic study
Cheranjeevi Jayam, Malay Mitra, Jiban Mishra, Bhaswar Bhattacharya, Biswanath Jana
January-March 2014, 32(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127043  PMID:24531596
Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to evaluate and secondary aim is to compare clinically and radiographically the success of using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) versus formocresol (FC) medicament for primary tooth pulpotomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 teeth were selected for pulpotomy; of which 50 teeth underwent FC pulpotomy and 50 teeth underwent pulpotomy with white MTA. Out of 100 treated teeth, 82 teeth (42 FC and 40 MTA teeth) were available at the end of 24 months for evaluation. 4 failures were found in FC group at 1 st month evaluation and no failures were found in white MTA group. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the overall success rate of study and individual success rates of medicaments. Overall success rate of the study was 95%, success rate of FC group was 90.48% and success rate of MTA group was 100%. Results: MTA produced better results as pulpotomy medicament in comparison to FC. The superior success obtained in the present study was matching other studies mentioned in the literature. Conclusion: MTA seems to be a promising pulpotomy medicament for future use.
  5,740 715 6
Biologic restoration of a traumatized maxillary central incisor in a toddler: A case report
Sheen Ann John, S Anandaraj, Sageena George
January-March 2014, 32(1):79-82
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127068  PMID:24531609
Trauma to the anterior teeth is relatively common in young children and teenagers. Traumatized anterior teeth require quick functional and aesthetic repair, and poses a challenge to the dental practitioner owing to the lack of co-operation ceded and the longer time invested. Reattachment of tooth fragment should be the first choice to restoring teeth when a usable fragment is available, since it gives a psychological and aesthetic advantage over the conventional technique. With the vast improvement in adhesive technology, reattachment is definitely a predictable treatment option for very young children. This paper describes the treatment of a 2½ year old female child who sustained crown-root fracture, extending subgingivally, in primary upper central incisor.
  5,634 479 1
Relationship between severe-early childhood caries, salivary mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli in preschool children of low socioeconomic status in Bengaluru city
Priyadarshini Hesaraghatta Ramamurthy, Hiremath Shivalinga Swamy, Fernandes Bennete, M Rohini, T Nagarathnamma
January-March 2014, 32(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127054  PMID:24531601
Aim: To find out the relationship between severe-early childhood caries (s-ECC) and salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacillus (LB) in preschool children of low socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed among 50 children aged 2-5 years selected from five Anganwadi centers in Bengaluru city. Clinical examination was carried out and caries status was recorded using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty-five children diagnosed with s-ECC based on American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) criteria and 25 caries-free counterparts were selected. Whole non-stimulated saliva was collected from all children and cultured for MS and LB. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman's correlation were used to find out significant relationships. P values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Twenty-one out of 25 children with s-ECC were positive for MS and 22 children were positive for LB. A significant difference in the mean number of MS colonies (12.2 vs. 4.16) and LB colonies (8.4 vs. 3.8) among children with s-ECC and caries-free counterparts (P < 0.01) was also found. A significant positive correlation was also found between caries experience and salivary MS and LB counts. Conclusion: s-ECC is positively correlated with salivary levels of both MS and LB in preschool children of low socioeconomic status. Suitable preventive strategies need to be planned when children are still young.
  5,402 527 3
Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque
Nanika Mahajan, Bhanu Kotwal, Vinod Sachdev, Nivedita Rewal, Rakesh Gupta, Shefally Goyal
January-March 2014, 32(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127049  PMID:24531598
Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1) orange juice with added sugar 2) orange juice with no added sugar 3) apple juice with added sugar 4) apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.
  4,582 404 3
Comparison of behavioral response to caries removal methods: A randomised controlled cross over trial
PR Geetha Priya, Sharath Asokan, J Baby John, R Punithavathy, K Karthick
January-March 2014, 32(1):48-52
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127055  PMID:24531602
Background: The issue of dental fear and anxiety still poses a significant problem in treating children. Various caries management protocols have been tried to make the dental visit more compatible to the child patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the behavioral and physiological responses to chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR) and conventional drilling method (CDM). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children with an age range of 7 to 11 years with bilateral frank carious lesions were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups: Group A - treated with CDM first followed by CMCR and Group B - treated with CMCR first followed by CDM. The physiological signs (pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation) were noted prior to treatment, during treatment, post treatment and 5 min after treatment. The behavioral responses were assessed by face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability scale and facial image scale. The participants were interviewed about pain, discomfort, taste, smell, preference and overall experience after every procedure. The pediatric dentist filled in details about patient behavior, time utilized and need for local anesthesia. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test appropriately (SPSS version 11). Results: There was no significant difference in any of the physiological parameters assessed between the two groups. Discomfort was significantly more (P < 0.025) in the CDM group than CMCR group. The time taken by the dentist was significantly lesser (P < 0.01) in the CDM group. Conclusion: Techniques which enhance the behavioral response in children should be considered for a better pediatric dental practice.
  4,405 511 -
Gutta percha verses resilon: An in vitro comparison of fracture resistance in endodontically treated teeth
Jyothi Shashidhar, C Shashidhar
January-March 2014, 32(1):53-57
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127058  PMID:24531603
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth filled with gutta percha and Resilon using lateral and vertical condensation methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected. All samples were instrumented with profile 4% Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Samples were randomly divided into five groups of 15 samples each: Group 1 was obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and AH -26 sealer. Group 2 was obturated using vertical condensation with gutta-percha and AH-26. Group 3 was obturated with Resilon and epiphany using lateral condensation technique. Group 4 was obturated with Resilon and epiphany using vertical condensation method. Group 5 received no filling. Restored teeth were subjected to compressive loading in a universal testing machine. Results: One-way ANOVA test showed significant difference among the groups (P < 0.05). The mean and SD values for the groups are as follows: Group 1 - (773.3 ± 148.1), Group 2 - (769.9 ± 170.5), Group 3 - (928.1 ± 135.4), Group 4 - (902.6 ± 120.8), and Group 5 - (766.0 ± 152.0). It was seen that samples of Group 3 showed the highest fracture resistance followed by Group 4, Group 1, and Group 2. Group 5 showed the least fracture resistance. Conclusion: Resilon-epiphany obturated roots using lateral condensation method showed higher fracture resistance compared with gutta percha-AH 26 groups on vertical loading.
  4,108 427 3
Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia
Arti Agrawal, Jonathan Daniel, Vasudevan Vijeev
January-March 2014, 32(1):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127071  PMID:24531610
Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia is a type of hemi-maxillofacial dysplasia. It is a sporadic, mesoectodermal dysplasia that presents early in life, possibly as early as in utero and exhibits male gender predominance (1.7:1.0). Its features include enlargement of the soft tissue and/or bone of one hemimaxilla that may produce mild facial asymmetry, sclerotic radiographic bone changes and dental developmental abnormalities. The dense bone, which often exhibits a radiographic vertical orientation of the trabecular bone pattern, is generally associated with delayed eruption of the teeth. Congenitally missing premolar teeth (eithe or both) is a common feature of this condition that is of significant diagnostic value. Ipsilateral cutaneous findings have been reported in 23% of cases. Immature woven bone forming irregular patterns are seen histologically. Herein, we present a case report on segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia in a 13-year-old boy.
  4,145 247 -
Oral melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy
Seema Chaudhary, Naveen Manuja, Chaitra Telgi Ravishankar, Ashish Sinha, Manisha Vijayran, Manpreet Singh
January-March 2014, 32(1):71-73
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127064  PMID:24531607
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is an extremely rare, benign neoplasm of neural crest origin composed of relatively primitive pigment-producing cells. It usually affects new born or infants of <1 year of age, generally involving the face or cranium. This case report describes a 4-month-old child with MNTI involving the anterior region of maxilla. A partial maxillectomy was performed on the left side of maxilla and the patient is now under follow-up.
  3,797 286 2
To assess and create awareness among anesthetists regarding prevention and management of injuries to the teeth and their associated structures during general anesthesia
Amita M Tiku, Rahul J Hegde, Lipika A Swain, Falguni R Shah
January-March 2014, 32(1):58-62
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.127059  PMID:24531604
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness among anesthetists regarding prevention and management of injuries to the teeth and their associated structures during anesthesia. Study design, Materials and Methods: Fifty anesthetists practicing in various hospitals in Mumbai participated in this study. A questionnaire was devised and distributed among them. The completion of the questionnaire by the respondents was taken as their consent to participate in the study. Statistical analysis: The data thus collected was analyzed using statistical package Medcalc (Version Results: The results showed that the injury to the oro-dental tissues is a common finding during anesthesia. The maxillary incisors underwent injuries more commonly than the mandibular incisors. Padding of the teeth was the most common precaution taken to prevent injuries to the teeth which, however, is not adequate. The management for such injuries was inadequate and in many cases, the patients' referral to a dentist was not considered post-operatively. Conclusion: Pediatric dentists can play a major role in creating the awareness among the anesthesia providers regarding prevention of oro-dental injuries during anesthesia.
  3,793 276 2
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